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EASY FEENCH LESSONS 



FOB 



BEGINNERS. 



CONTAINING 

FRENCH PRONUNCIATION CONVEYED BY ENGLISH WORDS, 
AND FRENCH AND ENGUSH SIMEARITIES, 

WITH 

THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL LESSONS ON FRENCH 

PRONUNCIATION, 

ILLUSTBATED KOSTLY BY WOBDS SIMILAB IN BOTH LANOXTAGES ; 

XXSMFLIFYXNa AT THB SAME TIMB 
THE PBINCIPAL GBAMMATICAL BULES *. 

COKTAININO ALSO, 

LITTLE WORDS FOR BEGINNERS, 

A VOCABULABY OF EASY AND USEFUL FBENCH WOBDS AND SENTENCES. 



BY 

L. IITOTTELLE, B.A., Paris. 

morSHOa of FRBXCH AUD IBCTURSK OV FRBX«H LITBRA.TURS AT THB BIBXIXOHAV AND XXDL&XD 
IXBTZTOTBt FBBXCH XASTEB A.T THB WOLTXRHA.XPTOK OaA.XXA.B dCHOOL, BTC . 

▲ OTHOB OF 

*'FBBXCH X.A.XOUA.aB SIXPLiriBD i" « VHB FBBNCH C0BBB8P0NDXXT ;" 

BTVSB FAMTA.ISI8TB SUB SaABBSPBABByBTCit BTC. 




SECOND EDITION. 



LONDOl^ : 
SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, & CO. 
PARIS ; GALIGNANI * CO., 224 RUE DE RIVOLI. 

1867. 

Price SU. ^d. 



Jo 3. ^ ^^- 



4 
I 



yniSTKl) HT NEIU. ANU COMPANY, RDlSDtttGH- 



EASY FRENCH LESSONS FOR BEGINNERS. 



The First Part of the work, called "French Pronuncia- 
tion CONVEYED BY ENGLISH WoRDS," which may be used as 
a French vocabiilary and spelling-book, exemplifies by means 
of English words the various forms, somids, and irregularities 
of all the lettem •f the French language. 

It is also composed of French sentences, of which the pro- 
nunciation is likefwise conveyed by English words, illustrat- 
ing also the principal and most useful rules of grammar. 

The Second Part of the work, called "French Pronun- 
ciation Simplified, contains — 

1. A vocabulary, and sentences composed of words of one 
syllable, exemplifying systematically the various sounds of 
the vowels, the dipthongs, the nasal sounds, and the union 
of words with reference to the rules on pronunciation, to be 
found farther on. 

2. A vocabulary, and short sentences in daily use. 

3. A few anecdotes, first in French, afterwards with an 
interlineary and literal translation. 

1 

4. Comparative tables of the French and English coins, 
weights, measures, ^c. 

5. Eules on pronunciation, with exercises on these rules. 
Some of the sentences of tb.^ exKtd^sft®» ^"xkck:<$^ ^^^'^k 



VL EAST FRENCH LESSONS FOR BEGINNERS. 

a verb, and one of the grammatical rules given in the corre- 
sponding lessons of the First Part of the " French Language 
Simplified." 

In every alternate lesson there is also a rule relating to the 
words that are alike, showing fully fhe afinities of the Freoch 
and English languages. 

The sentences and exercises which exemplify the rules on 
pronunciation, grammar, and verbs, are complete phrases, 
chiefly composed of words similar in both languages, and in 
common use; They are, therefore, very easy, supplying the 
student, in a short time, with an extensive vocabulary. 

In order to derive from this work the advantages it is in- 
tended to convey, the student is recommended to study or to 
consult at the same time the corresponding Lessons of L. !N'.'s 
"French Language Simplified," a new French Grammar, re- 
ferred to in the Second Part of this work, for verbs and 
grammatical rules. 



FEENCH PEONUNCIATION CONVEYED BY 
ENGLISH WORDS. 

Many attempts liave Mtherto been made to convey Erencli 
pcanunciation by means of an English combination of letters, 
but all have failed, as the English language is the last that can 
be used for this purpose ; so irregular is its pronunciation, 
that each vowel has many sounds. For instance, a in the 
word rate^ has its proper sound; in rat and cat^ it is pro- 
nounced as the French a, short ; in all and fall^ it is sounded 
nearly like o;'ia Christmas, it has almost the sound of the 
French eu in peuretise; in furnace, it has nearly the same 
Bound as the English e: it is not liecml in / read now, nor in / 
read yesterday, &c. The same observation can be made on each 
of the vowels. No combination of letters, forming imaginary 
English words, can therefore give any correct idea of the pro- 
nunciation of the French, as nobody could tell with certainty 
how a combination, that does not form an English word, of 
which the pronunciation is known, should be articulated. 

But, if a sufficient number of English words, of which the 
pronunciation is known, can be found to represent the pro- 
nunciation of French words, a great object will be attained. 
This is accomplished; aoid it may be well understood, by 
considering that nearly all the French sounds exist in the 
English l^guage. The various forms and sounds of each 
letter are first illustrated by means of English words; after- 
wards are given complete sentences the pronunciation of 
which is conveyed in the same manner, exemplifying also 
the principal and most useful rules of grammar contained in 
Hie French Langtmge Simplified. 

By this system the words usually regarded as difficult in 
pronunciation, become easy of acquirement, not only in pro- 
nunciation but also in signification, on account of the usual 
strangeness of the English words brought together to represent 
the French sounds. For instance, the word BiBLiOTHfeguB, 
library, is not found generally easy to be pronounced by be- 
ginners, perhaps because it is a long word, and has the " th," 
the vowels, and " qtte,^* pronounced quite diflferent from the 
English mode; but as soon as the learner has seen th& Esss^^;^ 
words ^^Bib, lee, oh, take (biV\e^oV\«S&!^*,^\ic^^ 



VUl FRENCH PRONUNCIATION CONVEYED BY ENGLISH WORDS. 

present the sound of tlie Frencli word, if the a in take is 
pronounced long and broad, he knows tolerably well its pro- 
nunciation, and remembers more ea«flythe word itself, this 
being a kind of mnemonic, or help to mbmory. 

The author had been induced to bcifig forward this man- 
ner of conveying a knowledge of the French pronunciation 
by a fact that took place in his family circle. He had been 
often thinking l^t it would be advantageous to the learner, 
to have the French pronunciation conveyed by English words. 
Some years ago one of his children, nine years of age, was 
endeavouring, while playing with a little friend, to teach 
him % few French words, and amongst others, quatorze, four- 
teen. He could neither remember nor pronounce it, though 
it had been repeated to him many times, when a sudden 
thought came to the little girl, who exclaimed : " That word 
is not difficult to pronounce ; you have only to think of a 
cat and a horse; say cat-horse, but do not aspirate the h in 
horse," " Oh, yes," replied the boy, " it is easy enough like 
that — cat-horse;" and he came strutting and proud of having 
conquered this difficulty : " Yes, sir," said he, "I have got it 
now — cat-horse, quatorze." He then added to it such other 
French words that he knew, and they were pisetty nume- 
rous, as his little teacher had taught him instinctively those 
that are alike in both languages, such as table, pigeon, orange, 
tuUpe, &c. There was, however, a slight inaccuracy that 
escaped the attention of the child : the s of horse does not 
give the exact sound of the z in the syllable of which it was 
intended to give the pronunciation. 

It may be said that the sound of the English corresponds 
generally so nearly to the French placed opposite, that a 
person pronouncing quickly the English words, would articu- 
late them so as to be immediately understood by any native. 

When in some cases an inaccuracy occurs, particularly 
when the English word is more or less acute, grave, broad, 
etc., than the French syllable it intends to represent, the 
Rules on Pronunciation contained in this work, from page 
98, and the master, will easily correct it. 



PART THE FIRST. 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION CONVEYED BY ENGLISH WORDS, 

£X£MPLIFYING ALSO THE SOUND OF EACH LETTEB. 



PRELIMINARY . REMARKS. 

Tje following Lessons should be used as an exercise 
in pronunciation, each section being accompanied with the 
corresponding lesson of the third pait. It is not intended 
diat these lessons should supersede the teaching of the 
master, but their object is to assist his viva voce tuition, 
and lessen his labour ; and to the pupil they will be found 
valuable in suggesting the pronunciation when he is alone. 
After haying studied the lesson, the pupil will then read 
these words to the master, covering with a slip of paper 
the written pronunciation. 

These examples of pronunciation represented by English 
words, will be found particularly efficient if employed in 
connection with the rules of the third part of this work. 
The pupil has here the means, in the absence of the 
teacher, of studying the pronunciation of the language with 
satisfaction, as he will more easily become familiar with all 
its peculiarities : for instance in matelas (maUla) the pupil 
will observe that the m and t have the same articulation as 
in English, that the a in the first and last syllables is not 
pronounced as a in rate nor in all, but as a in ah ; that the . 
e in the second syllable is altogether dropped, and the s not 
•sounded ; and thus, with the help of a few more facts of a 
similar nature, he will generalise his knowledge, and form 
by himself rules as to the pronunciation of consonants in 
the beginning of syllables, the dropping of the e mute, arid 
the pronunciation of consonants at the end of words. This 
method of exemplifying the pronunciation of each letter 
separately, greatly lessens the difficulty which has heretA- 
fore existed in familiarising theleaTXieT^N\x3<ft.>3ck^^^««»sv^^^^^ 
tion of the language. The coniusvoTi ^\iv?s\ «fv^^^ \x^\sv 



2 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 

meeting with words following each other, which differ es- 
sentially in their sounds, is overcome, and arfoundation laid 
which will aid the pupil in the art of pronunciation in his 
more advanced studies. 

The learner must understand that to pronounce well these 
French words and sentences, the English words must not 
be read slowly, as if forming distinct words, but rapidly ; 
so also, when an English word ends with a consonant, and 
the next begins with a vowel, the consonant must be ar- 
ticulated on the vowel,, and the two words must be pro- 
nounced as one single word; especially when in either 
of the above cases the words are united with a hyphen. 
However, When there is no hyphen, as in eel eh, {il hait, he 
hates), and the French word begins with a k, it shows that 
the h is called aspirated ; and though there should not be 
any aspiration in pronouncing hait, the sound of the h mtti^ 
not be articulated on it : in this case a small pause is re- 
quire between eel and eh {il and hail,) 

Those English words employed iji these Exercises, be- 
ginning with a k aspirated, must, to represent the French 
sound, lose their aspiration, as in harpe, harp, which must 
be pronounced as the English word harp, without the aspi- 
rate. It will be found, also, that in es very limited number 
of words, the English wqrd may represent -the sound in a 
somewhat too broad a manner, but the master will easily 
correct this, as the exercises must only be considered as a 
helping and suggesting guide when without the teacher; 
although those who have not the advantage of a master 
will find them- of the greatest service, more especially when 
taken in connexion with the rules of pronunciation, which 
wilj be found- in the third part of this work. • 

It is also necessary to remember that in French the 
accent or stress, is always on the last vowel not mute ; so 
in matelas the stress is on the last a, in paupiere (pop-E-air) 
the accent is on the grave e. The accent or stress, is not 
so strongly heard in French as in English.. It follows from 
this, that those English words representing French sounds 
must be read and accented accordingly. 

We have now and then, besides English words, made 

use of the letters of the alphabet, which, having singly an 

uniform pronunciation, cannot lead to any mistake : l^hese 

letters are printed in small capitals. 

Asj to suit our plan, we employ a few foreign names, and 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 3 

some abbreviated English words, we give below their mean- 
ings and pronunciations : — 

JLo, the 6th note of the scale in vocal mtisic. 
Tahj a child's 'phrase. 
Pa, abbreviaktion of papa. 
Ma, abbreviation of mamma. 
Kohl, a (merman author ; as col, in collar. 
Dee, a river. 
Teal, a water fowl. 

. Bonn, a German town ; o as in the English word roh» 
Eh ! an interjection ; pronounced as ay in day. 
Ex, a prefix, signifying out of, as in ea^-mayor, eop-cursion. 

Pronounce it eks. 
Re, a prefix. 
Lecy a nautical phrase. 
!Shah, title* given by European writers to the monarch of 

Persia ; a is pronounced as in /ar. 

The following Vocabulary is to be read when learning the 
lessons of the third part, where are given, as far as pos- 
sible, those words which are similar in bath languages. If, 
however,- the pupil have some previous knowledge of French, 
he may commit the words of this Vocabulary to memory at 
once. The master, however, will be guided in this matter 
as he may deem expedient. 



BEADING LESSONS. 

The nnmben between brackets correspond with the munbers given to the 
> lessons on the rules of pronunciation in the Third Part. 

(1.) A 



KNmJRH. 

to 


FRXNCH. 
4 


PROmTKOIATIOK. 

ah ' 


papa has 


papa a 


papa ah 


cape 

ferry boat 
sack, bag 
the bow 


cap 
bac 
sac 
rare 


cap 
back 
sack 
lark 


park 

fop 

paint, for the face 


pare 

fat 

fard 


park 
• fat 
far. 


papa sets out 
art 


papa part 
art 


papa par 


the share 

a2 


la part 


\^^«t 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXilMPLIFIED. 



BNOLISH. 

cat 

the tart 
the bar 
the carp 
the card 
the class 
papa walks 
the ice 
grace> pardon 
the mass 
the harp 
mask 
fat 
Martha 

(2 &i 3.) 

thimble 
the summer 
meadow 
the fairy 
Fredenck 
the tide 
the year 
Amedeus 



the, them 

of the, some 

my 

thy 

his, her 

tiese 



F&BRCT. 

\5hat 
la tarte 
la barre 
la carpe 
la carte 
la classe 
papa marche 
la glace 
la grdce 
la masse 
la harpe 
masque 
grassey. 
Marthe 

E 

de 
Tete 
pre 
la fee 
Frederic 
la maree 
Tannee 
Amedee 



les pi, 
des pL 
mes pL 
tes pL 
ses pi, 
ces pL 



PBOKUNQiAnair. 

Shah 
la tart 
la bar . 
la carp 
la cart 
la class 
papa marsh 
la^lass 
la grass 
la mass 
la Aarp 
mask 
grass 
mart 



day 

lay-Tay ' 
pray 
la fay 

fray-day-rick 
la Ma-ray 
la-nay 
ah-may-day 



nose 


nez 


nay 


and 


et 


eh 


is 


est 


eh 


dish 


mets 


may 


he puts 


il met 


eel may 


celebrate 


celebrez 


say-lay-bray 


to pierce 
si|; down 


• percer 
asseyez 


pare-say 
ass-say-£-eh 


to brew 


brasser 


brass-eh 


to attest 


attester 


ah-test-eh 



lay 

day 

may 

Tay 

say 

say 



FRENCH PBONJTNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



BNCHJSH. 

arrow 
mother 
father 
near 

decease, death 
R^ne repeats 



WBXSOB, 

fleche 

mere 

pere 

pres 

deces 

Rene repete 



dream 
same 
the beast 
(you) are 
the fete 

(3.) 
nooB^ 12 or'clock 

A3 



r^ve 
m^me 
la b^te 
^tes 
la f^te 



midi 



PR0X17VCIATI0N. 

flesh 

mare 

pare 

pray 

day- say 

ray-nay ray-pet 



the east 


Test 


lest 


the west 


Touest 


loo-Aaste 


seven 


sept 


set 


iron ^ 


fer 


fare 


fine 


bel m. 


bell 


Michael 


Michel 


me-shell 


shut 


fermez 


fare-may 


to hurt, to wound 


blesser 


bless-say 


this 


cet m. 


set 


such 


tel m. 


tell 


in a hurry 


presse 


pray-say 


detest 


detestez 


day-test-eh 


eternal 


etemel 


eh-tare-knell 


loses 


perd 


pare 


sea 


mer 


mare 


stone 


pierre 


ipea-air 


such 


telle f. 


tell 


fine 


heUef. 


bell 


the earth 


la terre 


la tare 


flower garden 


parterre 


par-tare 


the debt 


la dette 


la debt 


neat 


nette /, 


net 


this 


celle/. 


sell 


the saddle 


la seile 


la sell 


idleness 

• 


la paresse 


la par-s 



rave 
maim 
la bait 
ate 
la fate 



TOfc-^^^ 



■» 



FRENCH PRONUNCUTION EXEMPLIFIED. 



XN0LI8H. 


FREKOH. 


PBONUNOIATION. 


if 


81 


see 


here 


* • 
ICl 


K-see 


nor 


ni 


knee 


finished 


fini 


fee-knee 


he did 


ilfit 


♦eel fee 


he laughs . 


ilrit 


♦ill re 


he put 


il mit 


eel me 


he finishes 


ilfinit 


ill fee-knee 


laughter * 


ris 


re 


does he say P 


dit-il ? 


Dee-teal ? 


does he read? 


Ut-il? 


ijpe-till ? 


brown 


bis 


bee 


the crumb 


la mie 


la me 


if he 


s'il 


seal 


if they 


s*ils m. 


seal 


the bridle 


la bride 


la breed 


the wrinkle 


la ride 


la reed 


he dines 


il dine 


eel dean 


crime 


crime 


cream 


island 


lie 


eel 


worse 


pis 


pea 


worse 


pire 


pier 


the town 


la ville 


la veal 


the bile 


la bile 


labiU 


to laugh 


rire 


(to) rear 


to say 


dire 


dear 


the summit 


la cime 


la seem 


to finish 


finir 


fee-near • 


the look 

• 


la mme 


la mean 

• 


recital 


recit 


ray-see 


the appetite 


I'appetit 


lap-pay-tea 


• the coat 


I'habit 


la-bee 


ear of com 


epi 


eh-pea 


thank you 


merci 


. mare-see 


friend 


ami 


am-B 


husband 


mari 


mar-E 


the pack thread 


la ficelle 


la fee-sell 



* eel fg rather too long a sound for t^ and Us, and ill is too- short ; we «hall for 
that reason use both the words in turn, and the reader will adopt a sound between 
tnetwo. This observation applies to a few other words, such aA,tcal, till, meal, 

mi//, Ac. After a few pages, we shall however only use, when possible, the termi- 

nst/on i//, ae being nearer to the French sound iU 



FBENCH PBONUIKIIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



SNOXiISH. 

pillar 

ivy 

some spinage 

to set out 

he set out 

this one 

the plate 

idea 

pity 

.(4.) 

back 
fat 
our 
stupid 



FRENCH. 

pilier 

lierre 

des epinards 

partir 

il partit 

ceJle-ci /. 

I'assiette 

idee 

la pitie 



dos 
gros 
nos pi. 
sot 



PRONUNCIATION. 



the dress 

the school 

the sum 

we are 

the form, shape 

he forms 

he carries 

he brings 

the door 

the carrot 

she is strong 

anger 

the rose 

the sole 

as 



la robe 
Tecole 
la somme 
Qous sommes 
la forme 
il forpie 
il porte 
il apporte 
la porte 
la carotte 
elle est forte 
la colere 
la rose 
la sole 
comme 



pea-lee-eh 
lee-air 

* 

days-eh-pin-are 

par-tier 

eel par-tea 

sell-see 

lass-£-ate 

E-day 

la pea-tea-eh 



doe 
grow 
no " 
so 



he bites 


il mord 


ill more 


he is going out 


il sort 


eel sore 


he sleeps 


il dort 


ill door 


he is strong 


il est fort 


eel-eh for 


north 


nord 


nor 


wrong 


tort 


tore 


fate 


sort 


sore 


block (of stone) 


bloc 


block 


bolus, bowl 


bol 


bole 


cock 


coq 


cock 



la robe 
lay-Kohl 
la some * 
noose-some 
la form 
ill form 
eel port 
* ill-di-port 
la port 
la carrot 
ell-eh fort 
la Kohl-air 
la rose 



8 



FRENCH PBONUNCIAXION EXEMPLIFIED. 



XROLISH. 


mvcH. 


PBOAUKCIATION. 


he dares not 


il n'ose 


eel no^e 


she is foolish 


elie- est sotte 


ell-eh sot 


the window hliiids 


. les stores 


lay store 


the cord 


la corde 


la cord 


the post office 


la poste 


la post 


orb 


orbe 


orb 


the column 


la colonne 


la Kohl-on 


sonorous 


sonore 


so-nor 


he is noble 


il est noble 


ill-eh noble 


she is modest 


pile estrmodeste 


ell-eh modest 


he is economical 


il est econome 


eel-eh-Tay-con-Aome 


to pardon 


pardonner 


par-Don-eh 


to. order 


ordonner 


or-Don-eh 


to astonish 


etonner 


eh-ton-eh 


to command 


dominer 


doe-me-nay 


to gallop 


galopper 


galop-eh 


to colour 


colorer 


Kohl-or-eh 


partner 


associe 


ah-so-see-eh 


to limit 


homer 


bore-nay 


to paste 


coller 


Kohl-eh 


period 


periode 


pay-re-odd 


dome 


dome 


dome 


cone 

• 


cone 


con 


the dose 


la dose 


la dose 


droll 


drole 


droU 


he waters 


il arrose 


ill-arose 


he trots 


il trotte 


ill trot 


soon 


tot 


toe 


as soon 


sitot 


see-toe 


immediately 


aussitot 


oh-see-toe 


your bill 


votre note 


vote-not 


our cord 


notre corde 


note-cord 

• 


(5.) 


XT 


, 


bull-dog 


bouledogue 


bull-dog 


liquid 
who» that 


liquide 


lea-kid 


qui 


key 


brick 


briqne 


brick 


i%r 


figue 


fig 



FBENCH' PBONUNCIATION BXEMPLIFI^I). 



BNeiJRH. 


FailMGH. 


PBONUNCIATION. 


to the mystery 


au mystere 


oh miss-tare 


asylum 


asyle 


ah-zeal 


abyss 


abyme • 


ah-beam 


cypress 


cypres 


see-pray 


country 


pays 


pay-E 


have 


ayez 


eh-E-eh 


try 


essayez 


eh-say-E^eh 


(6.) 


AT 




delay 


delai 


day-lay 


the bay 


labaie 


la bay 


a marsh 


marais 


Ma-ray 


a dart 

• 


trait 


tray 


but 


mais 


may 


milk 


lait 


lay 


peace 


la paix 


la pay 


he was speaking 


•il parlait 


e.el par-lay 


he loved 


il aimait 


ill-eh-may 


he hates 


il hait 


♦eel eh . 


he would go 


il irait 


♦ill-E-ray 


military 


militaire 


me-lee-tar^ 


major 


maire 


mare 


summit 


faite 


fate 


the defeat 


la defaite 


- la day-fate 


wing 


aile 


ale 


the fat 


la graisse 


la grace 


the grain 


la graine 


la grain 


the plain 


la plain e 


la plain 


the affair 


Taffaire 


larfare 


make, do 


faites 


fate 


unmake, undo 


defaites 


day-fate 


he loves 


il aime 


eel-aim 


he leaves 


il laisse 


eel lace 


• 


AU 




to the 


au s. 


oh 


water 


eau 




• 


»8e«iiole,p»^^. 





10 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



SN0L18H. 




PRONUNCIATION, 


knife 


couteau 


coo-toe 


ring 


anneau 


ah-no 


picture, painting 


tableau 


tab-blow 


hammer 


marteau 


mar-toe 


hawthorn 


aubepine 


oh-bay-pin 


a present 


• cadeau * 


cad-oh 


cradle 


berceau 


bare-so 


barbel 


barbeau 


bar-beau 


fine 


beau 


beau 


to the 


aux fL 


oh 


the knives 


les couteaux 


lay coo-toe 


some rings 


des anneaux 


days-ah-no 


the pictures 


les tableaux 


lay tah-blow 


the hammers 


les marteaux 


lay mar-toe 


the seals 


les sceaux 


lay so 


the cradles 


les berceaux 


lay bare-so 


the' barbels 


les barbeaux 


lay bar-beau 


beautiful 


beaux fl, m. 


beau 


assault 


assaut 


ah-so 


simpleton 


nigaud 


knee-go 


warm 


chaud m. 


show 


-high 


hftut m. 


oh 


fals^ 


' faux m. 


foe 


it is neoessaiy 


il faut 


. ill foe 


he leaps 
shoulder 


il saute 


ill sot 


epaule 


eh-pole 


the eyelid 


la paupiere 


la pop-E-air 


hot 


chaude /. 


shod 


donkey 


baudet* 


beau-day 


he leaped 


il sautait 


eel so-Tay, 


• 
• 


EU 




actor 


acteur 


act-err 


pastor 


pasteur 


past-err 


author 


aiiteur 


Aot-err 


honour 


honneur 


on-err 


minor 


minjeur 


mean-err 


hour 


heure 


err • 


colour 


couleur 


cool-err 


ugliness 


laideur 


led-err 


butter 


beurt*e 


burr 



FBENGH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



11 



nroLiSH. 


FaiM<2H. 


• PRONUHOIATIpK. 


,the fear . 
a gilder 


la peur 
doreur 


la purr 
door-err 


error 


erreur 

EI 


air-err 

• 


the vein 


la.Tcine 


la vain 


th€ qfieen 

full 

the whale 


la reine 
pleine /. 
la baleine 


la rein 

plain 

la baa-lane 


the breath 


rhaleine 


la-lane 


Bey 


Bey 


bay 


(7.) 


OU 




or 


ou 


wAo 


where 


od 


wAo 


hole 


trou 


true 


the whe^l 


la roue 


la rue 


the cough 


la toux 


la too 


everywhere 


partout 


par-too 


for 
reddish 


pour 
roux m. 


poor 
rue 


thumb 
elbow 


pouce 
coude 


puss 
could 


the hen 
the bowl 


la poule 
la boule 


la pool 
labuU 


the soup 
the crowd 


la soupe 
la foule 


la soup 
la fool 


it flows 


il coule 


ill cool 


the road 


la route 


la root 


it grows 
chicken 
cannon ball 


il pousse 

poulet 

boulet 


ill puss . 

pool-eh 

buU-eh 


supper 

sigh' . 

a flock 

he was coughing 

he was pressing 


souper 
soUpir 
troupeau 
jil toussait 
il foulait 


soup-eh. 
soup-Aere 
troop-oh 
ill too-say 
ill fool- eh 


• 


DIPHTHONGS. 




(8.) 


AI 


• 


the straw 


la pfidlle 


. \«i.yva 



12 FRENCH PBOl^CIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 


BI0LI8H. 


FBJBNGH. 


PBONUNOIATION. 


• 

cattle 
the battle 
garlic 


betail 
la bataille 
ail 

lA 

• 


bet-i 
la bat-i 
eye 


piano 
he denied 
he untied 
dialogue 


piano 
il nia 
. il delia 
dialogue 


piano 
ill knee-ah 
• ill day-lee-ah 
Dee-ah-log 




I&j TER 


• 


heaven 

friendship 

associate, partner 

he untied 

paper 

grocer 

foot 

(you) were 

it becomes 

• 


ciel 

I'amitie 

associe 

il a delie 

papier 

lepicier 

pied 

etiex 

il sied 

01 


see-ell 
la-me-tea-eh 
ah-so-see-eh 
ill-ah day-iee-eh 
. Pa-pea-eh 
lay-pea-see-eh 
pea-eh 
eh-tea-eh 
eel sea-eh 


three 
king 
Blois 
silk 
one's self 


trois 

• • 

roi 

Blois 

soie 

SOI 


true-awe 

rue-awe 

blue-awe 

sue-aWe 

sue-awe 


(9.) 

library 
the- violet 


10 

bibliotheque 
• la yiolette 


bee-blea-oh-take 
la v-oh-let 


poet 
poem 


OE 

poete 
poeme 

OUI . 


poet 

poem 

• 


yes 
Lewis 


oui 
Louis 


we 
loo-E 


m 


UI 


* 


midnight, 12 o'clock minuit • * 
oil huile 
?/>i&/ huit 


mean -we 

wheel 

wheat 



FRENCH PI^ONUNCIATION EXEMPUPIED. 



13 



mraLisH. 


FRENCH. 


PaONUNCIATION. 


leather 


cuir 


queer 


needle 


aiguille 


e gg- we-E 


a case 


etui 


ate -we 


(H.) . 


TTvnvr 




immortality 


immortalite , 


Aim-more-tah-lee-Tay 


immediate 


immediat 


Aim-may-Dee-ah 


immovable 


immobile 


Aim-mob- eel 


immortal 


immortel 


Aim-more-tell 


immaterial 


immateriel 


Aim-Ma-Tay-re-ell 


to immolate 


immoler 


Aim-mole-eh 


immobility 


immobilite 


Aim-mob-E-lee-Tay 


immoderate 


immodere 


Aim-mode-eh-ray 


(12.) 


ENT MUTE. 


• 


they gallop 


ils galoppent 


ill galop 


they carry 


elles portent 


ell port 


they deserved 


ils meritaient 


ill may-re-Tay 


they repeated 


elles r^peterent 


ell ray-pay-tare 


they denied 


ils nierent 


ill knee-air 


they untied 


ils delierent 


ill day-lee-air 


they joked 


ils badinerent 


ill bad-inn-air 


they would sup 


ils souperaient 


ill soup-ray 


that they may walk qu'ils marchent 


kill marsh 


theyare setting out elles partent 


€ll part 


are they dining ? 


dinent-ils ? 


dean-teal ? 


did they laugh ? 


riaient-elles ? 


re-eh-tell ? 


would they dine ? 


dineraient-elles ? 


dean-ray-tell ? 


would they finish i 


' finiraient-elles ? 


fee-knee-ray-tell ? 


(13.) . 






tlie enemy 


Uennemi 


lane-me 


forum 


forum 


for-Aum 


hymen 


I'hymen 


lee-men 


item 


item 


eat-aim 


amen 


amen 


ah-men 



(14, 15 & 16.) E FINAL MUTE. 

the small sticks - les baguettes lay baa-^et 

the horn la come \Qb eorcL 

the bill la note \a \ioV» 

B 



14 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



EXQLISH. 

the heap 
the thorn 
.the cahin 
the beer 
the gate 
the piece * 
the cottage 



FRENCH. 



la pile 
lepine 
la cabine 
la biere 
la barri^re 
l&pi^ce 
la'chaumiere 



PE0NUWCIATI05. 

la peel 

lay-pin 

la cabin 

la bee-air 

la bar-E-air 

la pea-ace 

la show-me-air 



Maria 


Marie 


Ma-re 


the skate 


la raie 


la ray 


the pay 


la paie 


. la pay 


atheist 


ath^e 


ah-Tay 


the thorn is... 


Tepincuest... 


lay-pin-eh... 


the cousin has... 


la cousine^a... 


la coos-in-ah... 


the pipe is... 


la pipCv/Cst... 


la peep-eh... 


the tithe is... 


la dimevcst... 


la deem-eh... 



is it here ? 
is it for her ? 



est-ce ici ? ace-£-see ? 

est-ce pour elle ? ace poor-ell ? 

El UNACCENTED DROPPED. 



give the salt 
file embroidery 
the medicine 
the bracelets 
buy 
celery 

the mattresses 
cleverness 
call 

too small 
to redeem 
neatness 
brewery 

the packet-boats 
the earthenware 
Saturday 
the counter tenor 
unyoke 

put to the carriage 
precious stones 



donnez \e sel 

la brodme 

la medicine 

les brackets 

ach^tez 

celm 

les mat^las 

I'habilHe 

app^lez 

trop petit 

rachtfter 

la nett^te 

la brassme 

les paqu^bots 

la potme 

Samedi 

la bass^-taille 

detelez 

attelez 

des pierrmes 



Don-ell-sell 

la broad-re 

la maid-seen 

lay brass-lay 

ash-Tay 

sell-re 

lay mat-la 

la-beal-Tay 

ah-play 

trope-^a 

rash-Tay 

la net-Tay 

la brass-re 

lay pack-beau 

la pot-tree 

Sam-Dee 

la bass-tie 

debt-lay 

at-lay 

day "^ea-eir-re 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



15 



XKOLISH. 



to chase, to cut 

sailor 

the jest 

to bind with thread 

flattery 

to bring back 

chattering 

the battery 

what he says... 

mockery 

saddlery 

the porters 

omelet 

ground floor 

to rake 

cowardice 

a break-neck 

the chicanery 

the cemeteries 

plump 



PKENCH. 

cis^ler 

mat^lot 

la badin^rie 

fierier 

la flatt^rie 

ram^ner 

la causme 

la batt^rie 

ce qu'il dit... 

la moqume 

la sellme 

les porte-faix 

omelet 

rez-d«-chaussee 

rattler 

la lach^te 

cass«-cou 

la chicanme 

les cim^ti^res 

pottle 



he undid them il les r^defit 
the remedies les r^medes 

he straightened il les r^dressa 

them again 
the reflections (of les reflets 

the sun) 
she closed them again elle les r^ferma 
she looked at them elle les r^garda 
the chimney la ch^mihee 

he noticed them il les r^marqua 
the binders ' les r^lieurs 

the reliefs les reliefs 

she did them ctgain elle les r^fit 
the me^ls les r^pas 

he disowned them il les r^nia 
the remorses les r^mords • 

she set. them again elle les r^mit 
the week la s^maine 

shefoldedthemagaiB elle les r^pHa 
he thanked them again il les r^mercia 
the regrets les regrets 

b2 



PEONUNCIATION. 

seize-lay 

mat-low 

la bad-inn-re 

fee-slay 

la flat-re 

ram-nay 

la cause-re 

la bat-re 

skill-Dee... 

la mock-re 

la sell-re 

lay port-fay 

omelet 

red-show-say 

rat- lay 

la lash-Tay 

cask-coo 

la she-can-re 

lay seem-tea-air 

pot-lay 

ill lair-day-fee 

lair-itiade 

ill lair-dress-ah 

lair-flay 

ell lair-fare-Ma 

ell lair-guard-ah 

lash-me-nay 

ill lair-mark-ah 

lair-lee- err 

lair-lee-F 

ell lair-fee 

lair-Pa 

ill lair-knee-ah * , 

lair-more 

ell lair-me 

lass-main 

ell lair-plea^ah 



16 



FRENCH PRONUXCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 





FRSKCH. 


PBONUaCLinOK. 


nhe reads them again 


elle les relit 


eU loir-lee 


the staged 


les r^lais 


lair-lay 


the springs 


les ressorts 


lair-sore 


the soles (of shoes) les s^melles 


lay-smell 


he withdrew them 


il les retira 


ill lair-tier-ah 


she ironed them 


elle les repassa 


ell lair-pass-ah 


the relics 


les reliques 


lair-leak 


the hrims 


les rebords 


lair-bore 


she hid them again 


elle les recacha 


ell lair-cash-ah 


he sealed them again 


il les recacheta 


ill lair-cash-tah 


the remarks 


les remarques 


lair-mark 


he pasted them again il les recolla 


ill lair-Kohl-ali 


• 
our country 


notre pays 


note-pay-B 


your shoe 


votre soldier 


vote-sue-lee-eh 


our pistol ' 


notrtf pistolet * 


note-piste-oh-lay 


your apron 


yoXxe tablier 


vote-tah-blea-eh 


(17 & 18.) UNION OF THE CONSONANTS. 


is he here P 


est-il ici ? 


eh-tiU-E-see ? 


this man 


cetvhomme 


say-Tom 


the ladders 


lesuechelles 


lays-eh-shell 


some spinage 


desvepinards 


days-eb-pin-are 


his efforts 


seswcfforts 


says-eh-for 


must it... P 


faut-il... P 


foe-till... ? 


are they supping ? 


soupent-ils ? 


soup-till R 


does he love ? 


aime-t-il ? 


aim-till P 


our things 


nosv/cffets 


nose-eh-fay 


who is here P 


qui est^ici P 


key eh-tea-see ? 


this actor 


cetwacteur 


set-act-err 


six hours 


sixwbeures 


seize-err 


a momentary lodging pied-4-terre 


pea-eh-tah-tare 


(19.) 


B 


• 


to rock 


bercer 


bare-say 


bless 


b^nissez 


bay-knee-say 


to limit 


bornttr 


bore -nay 


to joke 


badiner 


baa-Dee-nay 


to bar, to stop 


batrer 


bar-eh 


stupidity 


b^tise 


bay-tease 


botanical 


botanique 


beau-tah-nick* 


a coach 


berline 


bare-lean 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEJiPLIFIED. 



17 



ENGLISH. 

abbot, priest 
abbey 

(20.) 

precarious 
character 
the comedy 
the column 
to colour 
economy 
article 
to light 



FSEKGH. 



PRONUNCIATION. 



swindler 

rent 

tobacco 

the stomach 

the string^ snare 



rabbe 
abbaye 



precaire 
caractere 
la comedie 
la colonne 
colorer 
leconomie 
article 
eclairer 



(2K) 
strict 



b3 



escroc 
accroc 
tabac 
Testomac' 
les lacs 



strict 



la-bay 
ah-bay-E 



pray-care 

character 

la come-eh-Dee 

la Kohl-on 

Kohl-oh-ray 

lay-con-oh-me 

are-tickle 

eh- clay-ray 



difficult 


difficile 


Dee-fee-seal 


to lace 


lacer 


la-say 


to force 


forcer 


for-say 


docile 


docile 


doe-seal 


she forced 


elle for9ait 


ell for-say 


she was lacing 


elle la9ait 


ell la-say 


he acquires 


il acquiert 


ill-ah-key-aft" 


to accost 


accoster 


accost-eh ' 


he grants 


il accorde 


iU-ah-cord 


the access 


I'acces 


lack-say 


he acceded 


il ftccedait 


ill-lack-say-day 

• 


beak 


bee 


beck 


rock 


roc 


rock 


he goat 


bouc 


book 


park 


pare 


park 


asp 


aspic 


ass-pick 



ace-crow 
ah-crow 
tah-baa 
less -toe-Ma 
lay .la 



«lTveX 



18 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION E3tEMPLIFIED. 



EfOLIBH. 


raxscB, 


PRONirKOIATI09f. 


exact 


exact 


eggs-act 


correct 


correct 


corretJt 


tact, feeling 


tact 


tact 




aspect 


aspect 


ass-pay 


respect 


respect 


race-pay 


actor 


acteur 


act-err 


editor 


r^dacteur 


red-act-err 


the 'tactics 


la tactique 


la tact-teak 


chymistry 


la chimie 


la sheme 


chemist 


chimiste 


she-mist 


shawl 


chale 


shall 


cat 


chat 


Shah 


bonnet, hat 


chapeau 


Shah-Po 


scarf 


lecharpe 


lay-sharp 


the chapel 


la chapelle 


la Shah-pell 


a posting bill 


affiche 


ah-fish. 


cowardly 


lache 


lash 


a prisorf 


cachot 


cash-oh 


artichoke" 


articTiau 


are-tea-show . 


the chair 


la chaise 


la chaise 


anarchy 


an archie 


an-are-she 


purchase 


achat 


ah-Shah 


cabbage 


chou 


. shoe 


to chase, to hunt 


chasser 


Shah-say 


chastise 


chdtiez 


Shah-tea-eh 


to. warm 


chauffer 


show-fay 


he runs on shore 


il echoue 


ill-eh-shoe 


the steps 


les marches 


lay marsh 


chronic 


chronique 


chronic 


(22.) 


OH 




Machiavel 


Machiavel 


Ma-key-ah-veil 


Achab 


Achab 


ah-cab 


Melchisedec 


Melchisedec 


mail-key-say-deck 


Me]eh\oT 


Melchior 


mail-key-or 


cholera 


cholera 


choVetQk 



FREKOH PROKUNCUTION EXEMPLIFIED. 



19 



SNOIiISH. 


PRBHOH. 


PRONUNCIATION 


Enoch 


Henoch 


eh-knock 


(23.) 


D 


• 


Daniel 


Daniel 


Dan-£-ell 


to sell 


debitor 


day-bee-Tay 


to decide 


decider 


day- see-day 


to draw 


dessiner 


day-see-nay 


cadet, younger son 


L cadet 


caddy 


to adhere 


adherer 


add-eh-ray 


to adore 


adorer 


add-oh-ray 


north 


n^rd 


nor 


foot 


pied 


pea-eh 


ugly 


laid 


lay t • 


warm 


chaud 


show 


nest 


nid 


knee 


the darts 


led dards 


lay dar 


Obediah 


Obed 


oh-bed 


Alfred 


Alfred* 


Alfred 


(24.) 


P 




perfect 


parfait 


par-fay 


he makes 


11 fait 


ill fay 


the folly, madness 


la folic 


la foe-lee. 


to filter 

• 


filtrer 


fill-tray 


very 


fort 


fore 


formed 


forme 


for-may 


to edify 


edifier 


eh-Dee-fee-eh 


shut* 


fermez 


fair-may 


motive 


motif 


mot-if 


active 


actif 


act-if 


ox, beef 


boeuf 


buff 


affirmative 


affirmatif m. 


ah-fear-mat-if 


decisive 


decisif m. 


day-seize-if 


effective 


effectif m. 


effect-if 


inactive 


inactif m. 


in-act-if 


respective 


respectif m. 


respect-if 


the key 


la clef w^ 


\«i <i\wj 


bailiff 


hailHf 


\i^-v; 



20 



FBRNOH PRONUNCIA7ION EXEMPLIFIED. 



IDieLUH. 


FJUEHCH. 


PBONITNGIATION 


weakened 


affaibli 


ah-fay-blea 


busy 


affaire 


ah-fay-ray 


affected 


affecte 


affect-eh 


offered 


offert 


off-air 


to affirm 


affirmer 


ah-fear-may 


affair, business 


affaire 


ah-fare 


(250 


G 




organ 


organe 


organ 


the guard . 


la garde 


la guard 


keep 


■ gardez 


guard-eh 


merry 


gai 


• gay 


throat . 


gosier 


gauze-E-eb 


gaiety . ^ 


la gaiete 


la gay-Tay 

• 


the ring 


la bague 


la bag 


dialogue 


dialogue 


Dee-ah-log 


bequeath 


leguez . 


lay- gay 


ford 


gue 


gay 


watch 


guettez • 


gay-Tay 


wasp 


gu^pe 
fatigue 


gape 


fatigued 


fat-E-gay 


pardon, grace 


grace 


grass 


fat 


grasse /. 


grass 


ice, looking glass 


glace 


glass 


to slip, to slide 


glisser 


glee-say. 


to sign 


signer 


see-knee-eh 


to reign 


r^gner 


ray-knee-eh 


to spare 


epargner 


eh-par-knee-eh 


to be ignorant of 


iguorer 


E-knee-oh-ray 


deign 


daignez 


day-knee-eh 


to disdain 


dedaigner 


day-day-knee-eh 


Spider 


araignee 


ah-ray-knee-eh • 


the legacies 


les legs 


lay lay 


finger • 


doigt 


do-ah 


(26.) 


TSL 


f- 


the coat 


I'habit * 


la-bee 


hermit 


liermite 


aiT-meet 



FRENCH PBOIOJXCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



21 



BN6LI8H. 



PRBKCH. 

honneur* 

huile 

Helene 



PRONUNOIATION. 



honour 

oil 

Helen 

jade 

the lobster:^ 

the axe 

hierarchy 

the hedge 

to stand on end 

the harp 

boldness 

to neigh 

hashed meat 

high 

the harnesses 

a herald 

harpies^ scolds 

bold 

ha! 

the hatred 

out of 

the heroes 

the eight lobsters 

(27.) 

arithmetic 

atheist 

tea 

apothecary 

ether 

Thomas 

Martha 

Theresa 

library 

theory 



(27.) 

Moka Moka 

a M>Bg, te4iona story kyrielle 



on -err 
wheel 
•L-N 



haridelle ' 


ah-re-d^ll 


les homards 


lay oh-mar 


la hache 


la ash 


la hierarchie 


la E-air-are-she 


la haie 


la eh 


herisser 


eh-re-say 


la harpe 
la hardiesse 


la Aarp 

la are-Dee- s 


hennir 


ah-near 


hachis 


ash-E 


baut 


oh 


les- hamais 
heraut 


lay are-nay 
eh-roe 


des harpies 
hardi 


day are-pea 
are-Dee 


he! 


eh! 


la haine 


la N 


hors 


or 


les heros 


lay eh-roe 


les huit homards 


lay we oh-mar" 


TH 




arithmetique 
athee 
the 
apothicaire 


ah-writ-may-teak 

ah-Tay 

Tay 

ah-Po-tea-care 


ether 


eh-tare 


'J'bomas 


to-Ma 


Marthe 


mart 


Therese 


Tay-raise 


bibliotheque 
theorie 


bee-blea-oh-take 
Tay-oh-re 






22 



FRENCH PBONUNOIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



(28.) 



KIOLUin. 


F&BNGH. 

• 


PBONUKCIATIOir. 


leave 


laissez 


lay- say 


olive 


olive 


oh-leave 


the lilacs 


les lilas 


lay lee-la 


weak 


debile 


dav-bill 


polite 


poli 


Poll-K 


Caroline 


Caroline 


car-oh-lean 


the Nile 


Nil 


neal 


thousand 


mil 


mill 


thread 


fil 


• fill 


eye-lash 


cil 


seal 


he 


il 


ill 


they 


ils m. 


ill 


real 


reel 


ray-ell 


altar 


autel 


oh-tell 


challenge 


cartel 


car-tell 


barrel 


baril 


baa-re 


parsley 


persil 


pare-see 


tool 


outil 


wAo-tea 


eldest son 

• 


fils aine 


fee-say-nay 


go 


allez 


ah-lay 


Isabella 


Isabelle 


is-ah-bell 


the alley 


Fallee 


la-lay 


to collate 


collationner 


Kohl-la-see-on-eh 


fellow-labourer 


coUaborateur 


Kohl-la-bore-at- err 


colloquy, dialogue 


colloque 


Kohl-lock 


colleague 


collegue 


Kohl-leg 


coUalr 


collet 


Kohl-eh 


to paste 


coller 


kohl-eh 


the hiU 


la colline 


la Kohl-in 


the necklaces 


les colliers 


lay Kohl-E-eh 


(29.) 


li 




allegory 


allegorie 


allay-go-re 


hellebore 


ellebore 


ell-lay-bore 


a slJgbt desire 


velieite 


veil-lay-E-Tay 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



23 



nroLisH. 



FRSNCH. 



to solicit 



soUiciter 



to banish 
the cane 
a cask 
cap 



bannir 
la canne 
tonneau 
bonnet 



PBONUNOIAnON. ' 

sol-lee-see-Tay 



the girl 


lafille 


la fee 


the straw 


la paille 


la pie 


note, ticket 


billet 


bee-E-eh 


dress 


habillez 


ah-bee-E-eh 


the battle 


la bataille 


la baa-tie 


the rabble 


la canaille 


la can-i 


pillow . 


oreiller 


oh-ray-E-eh 


the town 


la ville 


la veal 


a thousand 


mille 


mill 


codicil 


codicille 


cod-E-seal 


idyl 


idylle 


E-deal 


(30.) 


M 


• 


mix 


m^lez 


may-lay 


Maria 


Maria 


Ma-re-ah 


Amelia 


Amelie 


ah-may-lee 


domicile 


domicile 


doe-me-seal 


clerk 


commis 


come-E 


the chest of drawers la commode 


la come-odd 


immovable 


immobile 


Aim-mob-ill 


immortal 


immortel 


Aim-moi^-tell 


apex 


sommite 


some-me-Tay 


mammiferous 


mammifere 


Mam-me-fare 


autumn 


automne 


oh-ton 


(31.) 


N 




he denies 


ilnie 


ill knee 


the table-cloth 


la nappe 
lanoix 


la nap 


the nut 


la Noah 


the sand, arena 


Tarine 


la rain 


nor 


ni 


knee 



baa-near 
la can 



24. 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



'BM«jaB. 


FRSVOH. 


PRONUNCUnoV. 


give 


donnez 


Don-eh 


the banners 


les b'annieres 


lay baa-knee-air 


year 


annee 


ah-nay 


the nurse 


la bonne 


la Bonn 


innate 


inne 


in-nay 


to annihilate 


annihiler 


an-knee-E-lay 


Linneus 


Linnee 


lean-nay 


(32.) 


• 

P 




paw 


patte 


pat 


a part 


partie 


par- tea 


he is gone ^way 


il est parti 


ill-eh par-tea 


the shovel 


la pelle « 


la pell 


apostate 


apostat 


ah-post-ah 


among 


parmi 


par-me 


to fold 


plier 


plea-eh 


syrup 


sirop 


see-roe 


blow 


coup 


coo 


wolf 


loup 


loo 


much 


beaucoup 


beau-coo 


cape 


cap 


cap 


to baptise 


baptiser 


baa-tease-eh 


baptism 


bapt^me 


baa- tame 


seven 


sept 


set 


seventh 


septieme 


say-tea-aim 


to call 


appeler 


ah-play 


to escape 


echapper 


eh-Shah-pay 


to gallop 


galopper 


gallop-eh . 

* 


philippic 


philippique 


fee-leap-peak 


• 


PH 




Sophia 


Sophie 


so-fee 


Philip 
epitaph 


Philippe 
epitaphe 


fee-leap 
eh^peat-Aalf 


ephemeral 


ephemere 


eh-fay-mare 


atmosphere 


atmosphere 


at-moss-fare 



FRENCH PRONUKCIATIQir EXEMFLIFIED. 



25 



(33.) 



Q 



KNaLIBH. 


PRKKCH. 


PaOXUKCIATION. 


quarter 


quart 


car 


who, that 


qui 


key 


that he 


qu'il 


kill 


what is the matter? qu'y a-t-il ? 


key ah-tiU? 


brick . 


brique 


brick 


equity 


requite 


lay-key-Tay 


equip 


equipez 


eh-key-pay 


to acquit oue*s self 


s*acquitter 


sack-E-Tay 


Easter 


Paques 


pack 


pique 


pique 


peak 


pathetic 


pathetique 


. Pa-Taytick 


catholic 


catholique 


cat-toll-eke 


cock 

• 


coq 


• 

cock 


aquatic 


aquatique 


ah-coo-ah-teak 


the equator 


lequateur 


lay-coo-at-err 


water colour 


aquarelle 


ah-coo-ah-rail 


loquacity 


loquacite 


low-coo-ah-see-Tay 


(34 & 35.) 


R 


• 


harsh 


rauque 


rock 


anger 


la colere 


la Kohl- air 


he was running 


il courait 


ill coo-ray 


he admired 


il admirait 




ill-add-me-ray 


he attracted 


il attirait 


ill-ah-tea-ray 


Lent, fasting time 


careme 


car-aim 


sterile 


sterile 


stay-reel 


he was pulling 


il tirait 


. ill tea-ray 


the prayer 


la priere 


lap-re-air 


she milks 


elle trait 


ell tray 


canary-bird 


canari 


can-are- £ 


the carps 


les carpes 


lay carp 


the eye-lid 


la paupiere 


la pop- £- air 


the fish-bone 


Tarete 


la-rate 


father-in-law 


beau-pere 


beau-pare 


mother-in-law 


belle -in^re 

• • 


bell-mare 


late 


*tard 


twc , 


duck 


canard 


fiftW-^«i 



26 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



XVOLISH. 


FKBirCH. 


PRONUNCIATION. 


border, edge 


bord 


bore 


to sustain 


soutenir 


soot-near 


the death 


la mort 


la more 


to finish 


finir 


fee-near 


bit 


mors 


^ more 


to tarnish 


temir 


tare-near 


pastor 


pasteur 


past-err 


the liquor 


la liqueur 


la lick-err 


gold 


or 

• 


or 

• 


au: 


air 


air 


peer, like 


pair 


pair 


for 


pour 


poor 


dear 


• cher 


shaiire 


third 


tiers 


tea- air 


yesterday .* 


hier 


E-air 


proud 


fier 


fee-air ' 


iron 


fer 


fare 


the sea 


la mer 


la mare 


to admire 


admirer 


add-me-ray 


to attract 


attirer 


ah -tea- ray 


to overflow 


deborder 


day-bore-day 


to speak 


parler . 


par-lay 


skinner 


pelletier 


pell-tea-eh 


dairy-man 


•laitier 


lay-tea- eh 


saddler 


sellier 


say-lea-eh 


trade 


mietier 


inay-tea-eh 


steel 


acier 


ass-£-eh 


potter 


potier 


pot-E-eh 


necklace 


collier 


Kohl-E-eh 


haberdasher 


mercier 


mare-see-eh 


paper maker 


• papetier 


pap-tea-eh 


(35.) 


R 




bitter 


amer 


ah-mare 


ether 


ether 


eh-tare 


winter 


rhiver 


leave -air 


Esther 


Esther 


ace-tafe 


behind 


derriere 


day-re- air 


the stone 


ia pierre 


\a ^e«t-«t\T 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



27 



ENeLISH. 

he could 

to stop, to arrest 

to amve 



PRKNCH. 



PRONUNCIATION. 



il pourrait 

arr^ter 

arriver 



the parasols 
Melchisedec 



les parasols 
Melchisedec 



ill poor-eh 
ah-ray-Tay 
are-eve-eh 



erroneous 


errone 


air-roe -nay 


to wander 


errer 


air-ray 


to abhor 


abhorrer 


ah-bore-ray 


.he would acquire 


il acquerrait 


ill ah-care-ray 


(36.) 


S 




the pails 


les seaux 


lay so 


salt 


sel 


sell 


fate 


sort 


sore 


to saddle 


seller . 


sell-eh. 


to go out 


sorlir 


sore-tier 


parsonage-house 
helmet 


presbytere 


press'bee-tare 


casque 


cask 


to attest 


attestor 


ah-test-eh 


the destiny 


la destinee 


la dace-lea-nay 


he was pushing 


il poussait 


ill puss-eh 


the distress 


la detresse 


la day- trace 


enough 


assez 


ah-say 


pressed, in a hurry 


presse 


pray-say 


to slip 


glisser 


glee-say 


to try 


essayer 


eh-say-E-eh 


he coughed 


il toussait 


ill-too-say 


plate 


assiette 


ah-see-ate 


the fineness, finesse la finesse 


la fin-S 


politeness 


la politesse 


la PoU-eat-S 


to water 


arroser 


ah-rose-eh 


the cousin 


la cousine /. 


la ooos-in 


he placed 


il posa 


ill pause-ah 


asylum 


asyle 


ah-zeal 


to resound 


resonner 


ray-zope-eh 



lay pmrasol 



c2 



28 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



• (37.) 



s 



SNOLISH* 


TKKSVM, 


PRONUNCIATION. 


after 


apres 


ah-pray 


near 


pres 


pray 


the aniseed 


l*anis 


la-knee 


worse 


pis 


pea 


carpet 


tapis 


tah-pea 


basket 


cabas 


cab-ah 


to the harness 


au hamais 


oh are-nay 


but 


mais 


may 


friends 


amis 


ah-me 


the 


les 


lay 


paradise 


paradis 


par-ah-Dee 


the stirrups* 


les etriers / 


lays-eh-tree-eh 


the cabinetmakers les ebenistes 


lays- eh-ban e-east 


the benches (joiners' 


) les etablis 


lays-eh-tah-blea 


the squares 


les equerres 


lays-eh-care 


his pranks, freaks 


ses equipees - 


says-eh-key-pay 


atlas 


atlas 


at-lass 


ace 


as 


ass 


aloes 


aloes 


ah-low-S 


the eldest sons 


les fils ames 


lay fee-say-nay 


Thomas 


Thomas 


toe-Ma 


villany 


' sceleratesse 


say-lay-rat-S 


the saw 


la scie 


la see 


to saw 


scier 


see-eh 


the scene 


la scene 


la sa.no 


seal 


sceau 


so 


(38.) 


T 


• 


indifference 


tiedeur 


tea-aid-err 


to merit 


meriter 


mare-E-Tay 


mortal 


mortel 


more -tell 


preacher 


predicateur 


pray-Dee-cat-err 


to assist 


assister 


assist-eh 


atom 


atome 


ah-Tom 



partial (not general) partial 



"l^ai-aee-ell 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



29 



BKGLISH. 


TKKgxsa, 


PSONUNCIATION. 


he initiated 


il initia 


ill-B-knee-see-ah 


initiate them 


initiez-les 


E-knee-see-eh-lay 


friendship 


amitie 


ah-me-tea-eh 


he chastised 


il chdtia 


ill Shah-tea-ah 


the toast 


la rotie 


la roe-tea 


roast meat 


roti m. 


roe-tea 


enmity 


mimiti^ 


in-£-me-tea-eh 


(you were) imitating 


imitiez 


£-me-teaeh 


the state 


Tetat 


lay-tah 


net 


filet 


fee-lay 


cabinet, study room 


cabinet 


cab-B-nay 


arrest 


arr^t 


ah-ray 


all 


tout 


too 


spite 


depit 


day-pea 


the forest 


la for^t 


la for-eh 


receipt 


acquit 


ah-key 


assault 


assaut 


ah-so 


the effect 


Feffet 


lay-fay 


Robert 


Robert 


rob-air 


aspect 


aspect 


ass-pay 


inn 


cabaret 


cab-ah-ray 


he laughs 


ilrit 


ill re 

• 


(39.) 


T 


^ 


the east 


rest 


lest 


the west 


Touest 


loo-A'aste 


neat 


net 


net . 


ballast 


lest 


lest 


freight 


fr^t 


fret 


exact 


exact 


eggs-act ' 


dowry 


dot 

• 


dot 


strict 


strict 


strict 


correct 


correct 


correct 


seven 


sept 


jset 


seven friends 

• 


sept amis 


set-ah-me 


seven shawls 


sept chales 


say shall * 


to attract' 


attirer 


«Xx-\^«b-\w3 


charm, attraction 


attrait 


>k-U«:^ 



c3 



30 



FKBaBGH nK»S€]gCUXiasr EnCKPUFIEII. 



(39.) 

the toim 
tlie jadket 
tbe vein 

Tile 

(40.) 

te examine 

exile 

exMt 

exeesB 

to excite 

sixth 

Aix 

Aix4a-«hapel]e 



la riUe 
la Teste 
la Teine 
Til 



exammeT 

exU 

exact 



exees 
exdter 



siideme 



Aix 
Aix-la^iiapelle 



(Don) Quixote (Don) Qnixole 



to extirpate 
fix 

gaiiies 
curtains 
to the 

peaee 



eirtiiper 
fixe 

anlx 
rideanx 
max fJ. 
lanx wu 
paix 



rKDTOnUllQS. 



la Teal 
la Test 
la Tain 
Teal 



efrgs-ah-me-nay 

eg^-Keal 

eggs^M^t 



ache-see-TaT 

seize«E>aim 

ex (some sav S) 
S4a^hah>peU 

keT-shot 

« 

ex-tiex-pay 
fix 

oh 
lead-oh 

foe 
pay 



lirvre theT mx f etaient-ils »ix ? eh-TaT-till cease ? 



she has six eats elle a six chats eU-ah see Shah 
ahehas ten eoitains elle a dix rideanx eU-ah Dee read>oh 



he has aix ftiends il a six amis 



Z 



ill ah seixe-ah-me 



xpne 


mdxk^ 


«one 


sixteen 


sew<^ 


s^\« 


4jtaMa 


trMi« 


U«^ 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



31 



■NOLISH. 


FBXNCH. 


PRONUNCIATlOir. 


the Zouaves 


les Zouaves 


layS'WAo-AaVe 


nose 


nez 


nay 


rice 


riz 


re 


(you) will know 


saurez 


so-ray 


(you) appear 


paraissez 


Pa-ray-say 




MISCELLANEOUS WORDS. 


to hoist 


hisser 


E-say 


the fiches, at cards les fiches 


lay fish 


faithful 


fidele 


fee-dell 


fidelity 


fidelite 


fee-day-lee-Tay 


fief 


fief 


fee-F 


gall 


fiel 


fee-ell 


phare 


phare 


far 


honesty . 


honnetete 


on-net-Tay 


the slices of bread les tartines 


lay tar-tin 


the best 


la meilleure 


la may-E-err 


electricity 


electricite 


eh-lake-tree-see-Tay 


the scythe 


la faux 


la foe 


postman 


facteur 


fact-err 


the lawn 


la pelouse 


lap-loose 


Italy 


ritalie 


lee-tah-lee 


halter 


licou 


lee -coo 


esteem 


estime 


S-team 


to cut 


couper 


coo-pay • 


dead 


decede 


day- say-day 


lukewarm 


tiede 


tea-9,id 


the hosiers 


les bonnetiers 


lay Bonn-tea-eh 


the sealing wax 


la cire a cacheter 


la sear-ah-cash-Tay 


the parish 


la paroisse 


par-wAo-ass 


the ditches 


les fosses 


lay foe- say 


the rakes 


les rateaux 


lay rat-oh 


the waggons 


Ifes chariots 


lay Shah-re-oh 


the crops 


les recoltes 


lay ray- colt 


the conveyancers 


les notaires 


lay not-air 


slaughter place 


abattoir 


ah-bat-w^o-are 


the marshes 


les marais 


lay Ma-ray 


the meadow 


la prairie 


la pray-re 


the brewers 


les brasseurs 


lay brass-err 


the scourges, flails les fleaux 


\%.^ ^a^-^ 


the synagogfLe 


la synagogue 


\a «W\-«JCL-%^% 



32 



FB^CH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



mOLIMi. 

the confeetioners 

netde 

oil cruet 

milk jag 

the trajs 

the soup-tareen 

the sance-boats 

the pies 

this goose 

snipes. 

horse radishes 

the toast and water 

the laces 

stone (of fruit) ' 

the features 

the sighs 



FKBNCH. 

les pdtissiens; 
ortie 
huilier 
pot-au-lait 
les plateaux 
la soupiere 
les sauci^res 
les p4tes 
cette oie 
des becassines 
des raiforts 
Feau panee 
les lacets 
noyau 
les traits 
les soupirs 



ffiONmClATION. 

lay Pa-tea-see -Ish 
or-tea 
wAeel-E-eh 
pot-oh-lay 
lay plat-oh 
la sue-pea-air 
lay sauce-£-air 
lay pat-eh 
set-wAo-awe 
day bake-ass-in 
day ray-for 
low Pa-nay 
lay IVsay 
Noah-E-oh 
lay tray 
lay sue-pier 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION 

CONYETED BY ENGLISH WORDS. 



Before the pupil commences the study of the following 
Reading Lessons, we again call his attention to the fact 
that although the English word which is intended to repre- 
sent the corresponding French sound will, in the majority 
of cases, he found to he most exact, yet in a few instances 
it is not so perfect as we could have desired. We are 
convinced, however, that with the aid of our system, and by 
following the directions given in the preliminary remarks 
(page 1), he will become rapidly familiar with the pronun- 
ciation of the French language, and thus overcome a 
difficulty, which more than any other has hitherto stood in 
in the way of the student's progress. 

These Lessons at the same time e^^emplify the Gram- 
matical Rules of the Third and Fourth Parts, and the num- 
bers between brackets correspond with the numbers of 

those Lessons. 

— -♦ — 

(1 & 2.) THE DEFINFTB ARTICLE : LE, LA, LES, &C. 
FRBKOH. PR0NT7NCIATI0N. 

1 Apportez le diner. ah-port-ell-Dee-nay. 

2 Oa a-t-elle mis le iU 1 wAo ah-teU-mill-Tay 1 . 

3 Toumez le dos. tour-knell-doe. 

4 La patrie nous est chdre. la Pa-tree noose-eh share. 

5 L'aim^e est 6coal^e. larnay eh-Tay-coo-lay; 

6 Fermez la porte. fiire-may la port 

7 II d61ia la fioelle. ill day-lee-ah la fee-sell. 

8 II halt la perfidie. ill eh la pare-fee-Dee. 

9 Oil a-t-il mis la clef ? who ah-till me la clay ? 

10 La hache est ici. la ash eh-tea-see. 

11 L'habit est trop petit. Isrbee eh trope-tea. 

12 II aime T^cole. ill-aim lay-Kohl. 

13 II est mort Famine demi^re. ill-eh more la-nay dare-knee-air, 

14 II pr^fdre Tacier. ill pray-fiure lass-B-eh. 

TRANSLATION. 

1 Bring the dinner. 8 He hates perfidy. 

2 Where did she put the tea ? 9 Where has he put the key ? 

3 Turn your back. 10 The axe is here. 

4 Our country is dear to us. 11 The coat is too small. 

5 The year is passed. 12 He l\kfi« «x:\io<^. 

6 Shut the door. 1^ He dKe^W^.'jeax, • 
/ He untied the string. 14 "He ipwfet^ %\fi«\. 



34 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



PRIMCH. 

1 II aime les soles. 

2 La bonne &it les lits. 

3 A-t-elle coup^ les tartines ? 

4 Tirez les rideaux. 

6 II avait le cuir des selliers. 

6 Elle a les bagues des soeurs. 

7 Elle avait les ch&les des m^res. 



PRONUNCIATION 

ill-aim lay sol. 

la Bonn my laj lee. 

ah-tell coo-pay lay tar-tin ? 

tea-ray lay read-oh. 

iU-Aave-ell-queer day sell-E-eh. 

ell-ah lay bag day Sir. 

ell-Aaye-eh lay shall day mare. 



8 Est-ilciuparc? 

9 II platt au capitaine. 

10 Etait-il au cal)aret ? 

11 Paul a-t-U 6t6 Ilia figte ? 

12 II a 6t6 ^ la ville. 

13 U 6tait k T^glise. 

14 Elle allait li r^cole. 

15 Bonnez oes sacs h T^picier. 

16 II donna la clef au portier. 

17 U apportait des cordes aux 

selliers. ' 



eh-till oh park ? 
ill Plato cap-E-ten. 
eh-Tay-till oh cab-ah-ray ? 
Poll ah-till eh-Tay ah la fate ? 
ill-ah eh-Tay ah la veal 
ill-eh-Tay-tah l^lees. 
ell-ah-let-ah lay Blohl. 
Don-eh say sackahlay-pea-see-eh. 
ill Don-ah la clay oh port-B-eh 
ill-ah-pore-Tay day cord oh sell- 
B-eh. 



18 Erreur n'est pas crime. 

19 Honneur aux h6ros ! 

20 II &it'erreur. 



air-err nay Pa cream, 
on-err oh eh-roe ! 
ill fey tare-err. 



(4) PARTinvB ARTICLE : DU, DE LA, DE L', DES, DE. 



21 n a de la ficelle. 

22 Elle a de Thabilet^. 

23 Pierre a de Tacier. 

24 Avait-il des laquais ? 

25 La rose a des ^iies. 



ill-add-la fee-seU. ' 
ell-add-la-bUl-Tay. 
pea-air add-lass-E-eh. 
Aave-eh-till day lack-eh ? 
la rose-ah days-eh-pin. 



TRANSLATION. 



1 
2 

8 



He likes soleg. 

The nnrse is making the beds. 
Has she cut the sHces of bread 
and butter? 
Draw the curtains. 
He had the saddlers' leather. 

6 She has the sisters' rings. 

7 She had the mothers* shawls. 



4 
5 



14 She was going to school. 

15 Give these bags to the grocer. 

16 He gave the key to the porter. 

17 He was bringing ropes to the 

saddlers. 



8 Is he in the park ? 

9 He pleases the captain. 

10 Was he at the tavern ? 

11 Has Paul been to the fgte ! 

12 He has been to town. 
J^ He was at cburcb. 



18 Error is not a crime. 

19 Honour to the heroes ! 

20 He makes a mistake. 



21 He has some packthread. 

22 She is skilful. 

23 Peter has some steel. 

24 Had he lackeys ? 

25 The Toaebaa ^OTii«. 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



35 



FRKNCH. 



PRONimOIATIOX. 



1 Elle a doim6 des figaes ^ ell-ah Don-eh.day fig ah map- 

ma petite soeur. tit-Sir. . 

2 II fait des essais. ill fay days-eh-say. 

3 A-t-il des choux et des ca- ah-tiU day shoe eh day carrot ? 

rottes 1 . 

4 Elle a de beaux oils. ' ell-add beau seal. 



{4b.) 



AVOIR, TO HAVE. 



5 II a des dettes. 

6 A-t-elle la clef ? 

7 II avait les casquettes. 

8 Avait-elle des rosiers ? 

9 Aura-t-il les bayonnettes ? 

10 Aura-t-elle des tamis ? 

11 n aurait des oies. 

12 Elle aurait des poulets. 

13 Auraient-ils des p^t^s ? 

14 Ayez ces bouquets. 



ill-ah day debt, 
ah-tell la clay ? 
ill-Aave-eh lay cask-ate. 
Aave-eh-tell day rose-E-eh 1 
oh-rat-ill lay baa-E-on-ate ? 
oh-rat-elle day tah-me 1 
ill-oh-ray days-wAo-awe. 
ell-oh-ray day pool-eh. 
oh^ray-till day pat-eh ? 
eh-B-eh say book-eh. 



(5 & 6.) 



PLURAL OP NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. 



15 II comiait ma soeur. 

16 Elle aime'mes soeurs. 

17 Donnez des glaces. 

18 Dessinez ces belles roses. 



ill con-eh Ma Sir. 
ell-aim may Sir. 
Don-eh day glass, 
day-see-nay say bell rose. 



19 Philippe fedt des Economies, fee-leap feiy days-eh-con-oh-me. 

20 Elle aime ces chdies. ell-aim say shall. 

21 n a des domestiques fiddles, ill-ah day doe-mess-tick fee-dell. 

22 Ces poules 6taient grasses, say pool eh-Tay grass. 

23 n est prit. ill-eh pray. 

24 Louis et Eobert6taient pr^ts. 1oo-e eh roe-bare eh-Tay pray. 

TRANSLATION. 



1 She has given some figs to my 

little sister. 

2 He is making experiments. 

3 Has he any cabbages and car* 

rots? 

4 She has beautiful eyelashes. 

5 He is in debt. 

6 Has she the key ? 

7 He had the caps. 

8 Had she rose-trees ? 

' 9 Will he have the bayonets ? 

10 Will she have sieves ? 

11 He would have geese. 



1 2 She would have chickens. 

13 Would they have pies ? 

14 Have these nosegays. ,• 



15 He knows my sister. 

16 She loves my sisters. 

17 Give some ice^. 

18 Draw these fine roses. 

19 Philip is- economical. 

20 She likes l^ese shawls. 

21 He has faithful servants. 

22 Those hQiva ^^x^ Sa^. 

24 \jeimA ttiidLB.o>aet\. ^«t^ ^^^ 



36 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 

• FRBHCH. PROmnrCIATKHT. 

1 Les fermiers 6taient actifs. lay fare-me-eh eh-Tay-tact-if. 

2 Donnez cette figae k Louis, Don-eh set fig ah loo-s, car-ill- 

car il aime les figues. aim lay fig. 

3 A-t-il des bafl 1 ah-till day baa ? 

4 Qui, il a des has de laine. we, ill-ah day bad-lane. 
6 Votre palais est bftti. vot Pa-lay eh baa-tea. 

6 Les rois habitent des palais. 1^ rue-awe ah-bit day Pa-lay. 

7 Elle aime les gros nez. eu-aim lay grow nay. 

8 Oil est le marteau ? w/io ell mart-oh ? 

9 Pierre a quatre marteaux. |)ea-air ah cat-mart-oh. 

10 II aime les choux. ill-aim lay shoe. 

11 Elle a achet6 six seaux ell-ah ash-Tay see so doe poor 

d'eau pour six sous. see sue. 

12 Nos9oeurs6taient-elles fibres? no Sir eh-Tay-tell fee-air 1 

13 Ces tableaux 6taient chers. say tah-blow eh-Tay share. 

14 Daniel a fait des cadeaux k Dan-E-ell a &y deck-ah-doe ah 

see troia Boeurs. say true-awe Sir. 

15 Cette eau est filtr^e. set-oh eh fill-tray. 

16 Tirez les rideaux. tea-ray lay read-oh. 

(7.) ENGLISH CONSTRUCTIONS INVERTED IN FRENCH. 

17 Elle a des chaises d'^bdne. ell-ah day chaise day-bane. 

18 II admirait les palais des ill add-me-ray lay Pa-lay day 

rois. rue-awe. 

19 Cette huile d'olive est trds- set-wAeel doll-eve eh tray Bonn. 

bonne. 

20 Od a-t-elle mis ma robe w/<oah-tellmeMarobeday-Tay? 

d'6t6 ? 

21 Elle a des baa de soie. ell-ah day bad-sue-awe. 

22 Elle avait le pot k I'eau. ell-Aave-ell pot-ah-low. 

TRANSLATION. 

1 The farmers were active. 13 These paintings were dear. 

2 Give this fig to Lewis, for he 14 Daniel made presents to his 

likes figs. . three sisters. 

8 Has he any stockings ? 15 This water is filtered. 
4 Yes, he has woollen stockings. 16 Draw the curtains^ 

6 Your palace is built. 

6 Kings inhabit .palaces. 17 She has ebony chairs. 

7 She likes big noses. 18 He was admiring the jcings' 
.8 Where is the hammer ? palaces. 

9 Peter has four hafnmers. 19 This olive oil is very good. 

10 He likes cabbages. 20 Where has she put my summef 

11 She bought six pailcr of water dress? 

/or six Boua. 21 She has silk stockings. 

/^ fVm^ our BiBtera prond'i 22 She YiiA t\M ^a\<ei y^. 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



37 



FRSKOH. 



PRONUKCIATION. 



3 

4 



A-t-il les glaces des tailleurs 
ou celles des merciers ? 

Elle m'a donn6 trois paniers 
de paiUe. 

Oh est votre bonnet de sole ? 

Oh est le pot au lait 1 



ah-till lay gla&s day tah-B-err 
w^o sell day maro-see-eh ? 

ell Ma Don-eh true-awe Pa-knee- 
aid-pie. 

w^o eh vote-Bonn-aid-sue-awe ? 

who ell Po-toe-lay ? 



(8.) 



FEMININE OF ADJECTIVES FORMED REGULARLY. 



5 Cette aiguille est trds-fine. 

6 H61dne n'6tait pas press^e. 

7 II n'^tait pas presse. 

8 Votre d6 est trop petit. 

9 Sa petite nidce marche. 

10 Marthe est fort gaie. 

11 Thomas est tr^s-fort. 

12 La glace est trds-forte. 

13 Est-ilpr^t? 

14 La marce est trds-haute. 

15 U est hardi. 



set-egg-we-E eh tray-fin. 
L-N nay-Tay Pa pray-say. 
il nay-Tay Pa pray-say. 
voto-day eh trope-tea. 
sap-tit knee-ace marsh, 
mart-eh for gay. 
toe-Ma eh tray-for. 
la glass-eh tray-fort, 
eh-till pray? 
la Ma-ray eh tray-Aot. 
ill-eh are-Dee. 



16 Philippe est Mche. 

17 Votre mdre est 6conome. 

18 II est tr^s-feible. 

19 Cette terre est sterile. 

20 La bonne est catholique. 



fee-leap-eh lash, 
vote-mare eh-Tay-con-Aum. 
ill-eh tray-fable, 
set tare eh stay-reel, 
la Bonn eh cat-toll-eke. 



(8b.) 

21 L*6temel est partout. 

22 II n'est pas tard. 

23 Elle n'est pas 1^ 



ETEE, TO BE. 



lay-tare-knell eh par-too 
ill nay Pa-tar. 
ell nay Pa la. 



TBANS;[<ATI0N. 



3 
4 



Has he the tailor's looking- 
glasses or the haberdasher's ? 

She gave zne three straw bas- 
kets. 

Where id your silk cap ? 

Where is the milk-jug ? 



12 The ice is very 8tn5hg. 

13 Is he ready ? 

14 The tide is very high. 

15 He is bold. 



5 This needle is veiy fiu^. 

6 Helen was not in a hurry. 
• ,7 He was not in a hurry. 

8 Your thimble is too small. 

9 His little niece walks. 

10 Martha is very merry. 

11 Thomas ia very strong. 

D 



16 Philip is cowardly. 

17 Your mother is economical. 

18 He is very weak. 

19 This land' is barren. 

20 The nurse is a catholic. 



21 The EteTii«\ Sa c^ecy^Vtst^. 
2d ^Yie \a not ^<&Te. 



38 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



FRBNOH. 



FROinjKCIATION 



1 Oiiestlabelle-ljadred'H61dne1wAo eh la bell-mare dell-N ? 

2 0^ est-qe ? wAo-ace ? 

3 Par ici. — ^Par 1^. par E-see. — ^par la. 

4 Oii 6taient mes soeurs? who eh-Tay may Sir? 

5 II 6tait k Paris. ill-eh-Tay-tah Pa-re. 

(9.) ADJECTIVES FORMING THEIR FEMININE IRREGULARLY. 



6 Cette maladie est mortelle. 

7 U aime la soupe grasse. 

8 Cette tarte est fort boime. 

9 La bonne est fort active. 

10 Votre laquais est fort actif 

11 "Cette figue est tr^s-bonne. 

12 II a bonne mine. 

13 Cette chaise est tris-basse. 

14 II est trls-bas. 

15 Thomas est fort las. 

16 Elle 6tait fort lasse. 

17 Cet anneau est 6pais. 

18 Les carpes ^taient bonne^. 

19 n est mineur. 

20 Votre soeur est mineure. 

21 Theodore est trds-flatteur. 



set Ma-la-Dee eh more-tell, 
ill-aim la soup grass, 
set tart-eh for Bonn, 
la Bonn eh fort-active, 
vote-lack-eh eh for-tact-if. 
set fig eh tray-Bonn, 
ill-ah Bonn mean, 
set chaise eh tray-bass, 
ill-eh tray-baa. 
toe-Ma eh for la. 
ell-eh-Tay for lass, 
set-ah-no eh-Tay-pay. 
lay carp eh-Tay Bonn, 
ill-eh mean-err. 
vote-Sir eh mean-err. 
Tay-oh-door eh tray-flat-err. 



(10.) ADJECTIVES FORMING THEIR FEMININE IRREGULARLY. 

22 Cesmatelas6taienttr^s-doux. say mat-la eh-Tay tray-do. 

23 Quel beau parterre ! kell beau par-tare ! 

24 II n'est ni beau ni laid ill nay knee beau knee lay 

25 Elle* n'est ni belle ni laide. ell nay knee bell knee led. 

26 La mer est grosse. la mare eh gross. 



TRANSLATION. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 



Where is Helen's mother-in-law ? 14 



Where is it? 
This way. — ^That way. 
Where were my sisters ? 
He was at Paris. 



6 This disease is mortal. . 

7 He likes meat soup. 

8 This tart is very good. 

9 The servant is. very active. 

10 Your lackey is very active. 

11 This fig is very good. 
J2 JSe 28 looking well. 

JS TbiB obair is very low. 



16 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 

22 
23 
24 
25 
26 



He is very low. 

Thomas is very tired. 

She was very tire<l. 

This ring is thick. 

The carps were go6d. 

He is a minor. 

Your sister is a minor. 

Theodore is a great flatterer. 

These mattresses were very soft. 
What a beautifiilrflower-garden ! 
He is neither handsome nor ngly. 
She is neither beautiful nor ugly. 
The sea \a toxi^^. 



FRENCH PEONUNGIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



39 



FRBNCH. 



PROinmOSULTION. 



1 La matin6e est belle. 

2 Qui a doim6 cette belle 

poule h, Fr6d6ric ? 

3 Cette eau est fratche. 

4 Ce qu'il dit est &ux. 



la Ma-tea-nay eh bell. 

key ah Don-eh set bdll pool ah 

fray-day-rick I 
set-oh eh fresh. ^ 

skill Dee eh foe. 



(11.) 



PLACE OF ADJECTIVES. 



5 Quel habit 6troit ! 

6 Quelle rividre 6troite ! 

7 Quel chasseur habile ! 

8 Quelle terre- fertile ! 

9 II estime beaucoup les do- 

mestiques fiddles. 

10 Quel chocolat 6pais ! 

11 Quelle soupe 6paisse ! 

12 Quelle fille fidre et bardie ! 

13 Quel mot difficile ! 



kell-ah-bee eh-true-awe ! 
kell-reave-E-air eh-true-at ! 
kell Shah-Sir ah-bill 1 
kell tare fare-till ! 
ill S-team beau-coo lay doe-mess- 
tick fee-dell, 
kell show-Kohl-ah eh-pay I 
kellH30up-eh-pace ! 
kell fee-E fee-air eh are-Dee ! 
kell mow Dee-fee-seal ! 



14 Cel6brez les hauts &its des 

h6ros. 

15 lis n'^taient pas presses. 

16 Qui aime les gros nez ) 

17 Quel beau berceau ! 

18 Quelle belle nappe ! 

19 Quels beaux berceaux ! 

20 Quelles belles nappes ! 

21 n nia tous les &its. 



say-lay-bray lay oh-fiiy day eh- 

roe.. 
ill nay-Tay Pa pray-say. 
key aim lay grow nay f 
kell beau ba^-so ! 
kell bell nap ! 
kell beau bare-so ! 
kell bell nap ! 
ill knee-ali too lay &y. 



(12 & 13.) DEGREES OF COMPARISON. 

22 n est aussi gai qu'elle. ill-eh-toe-see gay kell. 



TRANSLATION. 



1 

2 

3 
4 



The morning is beautiful. 
Who has given this beautiful 
hen to Frederick? 
This water is fresh. 
What he says is false. 



12 What a proud and bold girl ! 

13 What a difficult word ! 



5 What a tight coat ! 
6- What a narrow river ! 
7 What a clever huntsman ! 
. 8 What fertile land ! 
9 He very much esteems £Euthful 
servants. 

10 What thick chocolate ! 

11 What thick Bonp r 

d2 



14 Celebrate the great acts of 

heroes. 

15 They were not in a huny. 

16 Who likes big noses ? 

17 What a beautiful cradle ! 

18 What a beautiful table-cloth ! 

19 What beautiful cradles t 

20 What beautiful table-cloths ! 

21 He deiiied aJI t>b!& iMsXj^. 



^^ "H.^ IB «a Tiicrrj w^ ^^'^a. 



40 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 

FRBNCH. PRONUNCIATION. 

1 Elle est pis qu'hier. ell-eh pea key-air. 

2 II est tres-poli et trds-docile. ill-eh tray-PoU-E eh tray-doe-seal. 

3 II est trds-civil. ill-eh tray-see-veal. 

4 Votre bonne est aussi laide vote-Bonn eh-toe - see " led kell 

qu'elle est petite et grasse. ape-tit eh grass. 

5 II est fort poli. ill-eh for Poll-B. 

6 Elle est fort docile. ell-eh for doe-seal. 

7 Cette colonne est tr^s-haute. set Kohl-on eh tray-Aot. 

8 Cette raie 6tait tr^s-bonne. set ray eh-Tay tray-B6nn. 

9 Cette pelle est tr^s-forte. set pell eh tray-fort. 

10 II est pire qu*elle. jll-eh pier kell. 

(14 & 16.) DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES. 

11 A qui est ce bonnet 1 ah key S Bonn-eh ? 

12 Pour qiii est ce marteau 1 poor key S mart-oh 1 

13 Elle d6teste cet homme. ell day-test say-Tom. 

14 Cet article est cher. set-are-tickle eh share. 

15 II pr6f(lre cet arc. ill pray-fare set-ark. 

16 Cet dne galoppe. set Ann gallop. 

17 Cet habit est beau. . set-ah-bee eh beau. 

18 Cet homme est civil. say-Tom eh see-veal. 

19 Cette 6charpe est fort belle, set-eh-sharp eh for bell. 

20 Prdtez cette glace au mercier.pray-Tayset glass oh mare-see-eh. 

21 Cette fl^che a bless6 votre set flesh ah blay-say vote-pare. 

p^re. 

22 Elle sait.cette pidce. ell say set pea-S. 

23 Cette clef est h. votre mire, set clay eh-tah vote-mare. 

24 Cette tarte est pour votre set tarb-eh poor vote-Sir. 

soeur. 

TBANSLATION. 

1 She is worse than yesterday. 13 She detests this man. 

2 He is very polite and very 14 This article is dear. 

docile. 15 He prefers this bow. 

3 He is very civil. 16 This ass gallops. 

4 Your nurse is as ugly as she is 17 This is a handsome coat. 

little and fat. 18 This man is civil. 



He is very polite. 



6 She is very docile. 19 This scarf is very fine. 

7 This column is very high. 20 Lend this looking-glass to the 

8 That skate was very good. haberdasher. 

9 This shovel is very strong. 21 This arrow has wounded your 

10 He is worse than she is. father. 

22 She knows this piece. 

11 Whose cap is this ? 23 This key is your mother's. 
J£ For whom Is this bunmer ? 24 This tart 'vs for your sister. 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 41 

niSNOH. PRONUNCIATION. 

1 Cette*eau coiile. set-oh cool. 

2 Essayez cette robe. eh-say-EHBh set robe. 



3 Mettez ces couteaux l^bas. may-Tay say coo-toe la-baa. 

4 Il6p6tez ces dialogues. ray-pay-Tay say Dee-ah-log. 

5 Donnez ces bonnets h, ces Don-eh say Bonn-eh ah say 

dames. dain. 

6 Chauffipz ses tasses. show-fay say-tass. 

7 Votre sceur a achet6 ces vote-Sir ah ash-Tay say piano. 

pianos. 

8 II admirait ces bouquets. ill-add-me-ray say book-eh. 

9 Nicolas aime celle-ci, mais nick-oh-la aim sell-see, may dell- 

Delphine pr6f(^re celle-1^. fin pray-fare seU-la. 

10 Nous ne dimes pas cela. Noon-deem pass-la. 

11 Celles-ci 6taient ^ nos sceurs, sell-see eh-Tay-tah no Sir, eh 

et celles-1^ k nos cousines. sell-la ah no coos-in. 

• 

(156.) VERBS IN ER 

12 II aime k galopper. ill-aim ah galop-eh. 

13 Elle arrose ses choux. ell-arose say shoe. 

14 lis nient ces faits. . ill knee say fay. 

15 Elles pr^fdrent ces diMes. ell pray-fare say shall. • 

16 Elle admirait ces bouquets, ell add-me-ray say book-eh. 

17 Us marchaient derri^re elle. ill marsh-eh day-re-air ell. 

18 Elles r^p^teraient ces dia- ell ray-pet-ray say Dee-ah-log. 

logues. 

19 Elle ferma les portes. ell fare-Ma lay port. 

20 Ces capitaines ordonndrent say cap-E-ten or-Don-air larso. 

Tassaut. 

21 Essayez cette robe. eh-say-B-eh set robe. 

TRANSLATION. 

1 This water flows. 11 These were our sisters' and 

2 Try on this dress. these our cousins'. 



3 Put these knives down there. 12 He likes to gallop. 

4 Repeat these dialogues. 13 She waters her cabbages. 

5 Give these caps to these ladies. 14 They deny those facts. 

6 Warm these cupff. 15 They prefer these shawls. 

7 Your sister has purchased these 16 She ^as admiring these nosegays. 

.pianos. 17 They were walking behind her. 
18 They would repeat these dia- 

8 He admired these i^osefgays. logues. 

9 Nicholaslikes this one, but Del- 19 She shut the doors. 

phine prefers the other. . 20 ^eaeca^tai£A<3»^c^T«\V^<&%»»»3Q^ 

10 We did not say that. * 21 Try oiv >i3baa ^a«ea. 

d8 



42 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



PRJ5N0H. 

1 Adorez le Seigneur. 
3 Gardez ces papiers. . 

3 II paie ses dettes. 

4 II paya ses dettes aussit6t. 

5 Qui appelle-t-elle 1 

6 EUe appelait &es soeurs. 

7 II appellerait ses cousines. 

8 Elle a achet^ des 6pinards. 

9 Qui a apport6 ces sacs ? 
10 II a beaucoup touss6. 



PKONUNCIATION. 



add-oh-rail say-knee-err. 
guard-eh say pap-B-eh. 
ill pay say debt, 
ill pay-B-ah say debt oh-see-toe. 
key ah-pell-tell? 
ell-ah-play say Sir. 
ill-ah-pell-ray say coos-in. 
ell-ah ash-Tay days-eh-pin-are. 
key ah ah-pore-Tay say sack ? 
ill-ah beau-coo too-sav. • 



(16 & 17.) 

11 C6tait ma fete bier. 

12 II parlait k ma sceur. 

13 H61ene a ma harpe. 

14 OtL est ma canne? 

15 II parlait h, mes sceurs. 

16 Pliez mes robes. 

17 Elle admirait mes tapis. 



POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES. 



say-Tay Ma fate B-air. 
ill par-lay-tah Ma Sir. 
L-N ah Ma /larp. 
who eh Ma can i 



ill par-lay-tah may Sir. 
plea-eh may robe, 
ell-add-me-ray may tah-pea. 



18 H aime sa petite nidce. ill-aim sap-tit knee-ace. 

19 Qu'a-t-il donn^b-sa petite soBur? cat-ill Don-eh ah sap-tit Sir. 

20 Oil 6tait sa th^i^re ? who eh-Tay sat-eh-E-air ? 



21 Epiez ses d-marches. 

22 Grfilce pour ses crimes ! 

23 Elle perd ses bagues. 



•eh-pear-eh say day-marsh, 
grass poor say cream ! 
ell pare say bag. 



24 Notre chat est trds-beau. note-Shah eh tray-beau. 

25 II d^chirait notre papier, ill day-«he-ray note-Par-pea-eh. 



TRANSLATION. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 



Adore the Lord. 

Keep these papers. 

He pay8 his debts. 

He immediately paid his debts. 

Who does she call ? 

6 She was calling her sisters. 

7 He would call his cousins. 

8 She bought spinage. 

9 Who brought these bags ? 

10 He has coughed very much. 

11 Yesterday was my birth-day. 

12 He was speaking to my sidter. 

13 Heleo has my harp. 
Jd Where is my cane f 



15 He was speaking to my sisters. 

16 Fold up my dresses. 

17 She admired my carpets. 

18 He loves his little niece, 

19 What -has* he given to his little 

sister? 

20 Where was her tea-pot? 



21 Observe his movements. 

22 Pardon his crimes. 

23 She loses -her rings. 



24 Our cat is a very fine one. 

25 ]fte tore our paper! 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



43 



FRBNOH. 



PRONUNCIATION. 



1 Notre bonne esttr^s-gaie. 

2 Ecoutez notre p^re 



note-Bonn eh tray-gay. 
eh-coo-Tay note-pare. 



3 Nos soenrs Taiment. no Sir lame. 

4 Elle marque nos nappes. ell mark no nap. 

5 Nosdomestiquesquittent-ilsino doe-mess-tick kit-till ? 

6 II apporte nos toupis. ill-ah-port no too-pea. 



7 Pr^tez votre d^ k Sophie. 

8 Oii est votre canif ? 

9 Faites votre pridre. 

10 Cachetez votre billet. 

11 Oii est votre pipe ? 

12 M^lez votre the. 

1 3 Cette selle est pour votre baudet. 

14 Habillez votre sceiir. 

15 Votre p^re est prds d'ici. 



pray-Tay vote-day ah so-fee. 
wAo eh vpte-can-if ? 
fate vote-pre-air. 
cash-Tay vote-bee-E-eh. 
wAo-eh vote-peep ? 
may-lay vote-Tay. 
set sell eh poor vote-bean-day. 
ah-bee-E-eh vote-Sir. 
vote-pare eh pray Dee-see. 



16 Qui a vos tartes ? 

17 Apportez vos tasses. 

18 Qui a fait vos tartines ? 

19 II a achet6 vos tableaux. 



key ah vote-art ? 
ah-port-Tay vote-ass. 
key ah fay vote-art-in ? 
ill-ah ash-Tay vote-ah-blow. 



20 Oil est leur bonne ? 

21 Aiment-elles leurs parasols 

22 Oil 6taient leurs canards ? 

23 U aime leur cabinet. 

24 Leur cabme est petite. 



who ale-err Bonn 1 
1 aim-tell-err parasol ? 
wAo eh-Tay lurk-an-are ? 
ill-aim lurk-ah-bee-nay. 
lurk-ah-bin 6,pe-tit. 



(174.) 
25 Elle finit ses robes. 



VERBS IN IR. 

ell fee-knee say robe. 

TRANSLATION. 

1 Our servant is very merry. 16 Your father is near at hand. 

2 Listen to our father. • 



3 Our sisters like him. 

4 She is marking our table cloths. 

5 Are our servants leaving ? 

6 He is bringing our cups. 



16 Who has your tari^ ? 

17 Bring your cups. 

18 Who cut your slices of bread 

and butter ? 

19 He bought your paintings. 



7 Lend your thimble to Sophia. 

8 Where is your pen-knife f 

9 Say your prayers. 
iO Seal your note. 

11 Where is your pipe ? 

12 Mix your tea. • 

13 This saddle is for your donkey. 

14 DreBB your sister. 



20 Where is their servant ? ' 

21 Bo they like their parasols ? 

22 Where were their ducks ? 

23 He likes their study room. 

24 Their cabin is sccaSSl. 



25 Sh.e&Q\a\ieA\>Wc <ds«Bee<^> 



44 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 

FBBNCH. PRONITHCIATION. 

1 n finissait ses thdmes. ill fee-knee-say say tame. 

2 Elles finissaient ces paquets. ell fee-knee-say say pack-eh. 

3 B^nissez le Seigneur ! bay-knee-sail say-knee-err ! 

4 Finissez nos bouquets. fee-knee-say no book-eh. 

5 Qu*U finisse aussit6t. kill fee-niece-oh-see-toe. 

6 A-t-elle fini votre broderie ? ah-tell fee-knee vote-broad-re ? 

7 Allez finir votre billet ah-lay fee-near vote-bee-B-eh. 

(18 & 19.) PERSONAL PRONOHNa 

8 II aime h rire. ill-aim ah rear. 

9 Ordonnez, et il ob6it. or-Don-eh, eh ill-oh-bay-K ' 

10 II pr6fere ces pays-1^. ill pray-fere say pay-B-la. 

11 II fit trds-bonne ch^re. ill fee tray-Bonn share. 

12 II a la ckf iU-ah la clay. 

13 II a dln6. ill-ah Dee-nay. 

14 n a tout dit. iil-ah too Dee. 

15 II est trds-press^. iU-eh tray-pray-say. 

16 lis partent samedi. ill part Sam-Dee. 

17 Us p6rirent au port. ill pay-rear-toe-pore. 

18 lis m6rit^rent 1 estime des ill may-re-tare less-team day cap- 

capitaines. £-ten. 

Id lis marchent beaucoup. ill marsh beau-coo. 

20 Elle 6tait trds-press^e. ell-eh-Tay tray-pray-say. 

21 Elledort. ell door. 

22 Elle est morte hier. ell-eh more-tea-air. • 

23 Elle est sortie h sept heures. ell-eh sore-tea ah set-err. 



24 Elles parlaient k ma soeur. ell par-lay-tah Ma Sir. 

TRANSLATION. 

1 He was finishing his themes. 14 He said all. 

2 They were finishiDg these paroels 15 He is in a great hurry. 
8 Bless the Lord ! 

4 Finish our nosegays. • 16 They leave on Saturday. 

5 Let him finish immediately. 17 They perished in sight oC port. 

6 Has she finished your embroi- 18 They merited the esteem of the 

dery ? captains. 

7 Go and finish your note. 19 They walk mudL 

8 He likes to laugh. 20 She was in a great hurry. 

9 Command, and he obeys. 21 She is asleep. 

10 He prefers those countries. ' 22 She died yesterday. 

11 He enjoyed his meal very much. 23 She went out at soTen o'dock. 

12 He has the key. ' 

JS Se has 4ioe^, • 24 They were speaking to my sister* 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



45 



FRENCH. 

1 Elles dessinaient. 

2 Elles fermaient les portes. 



PRONUNCIATION. 



ell day-see»nay. 

ell &re-may lay port. 



3 Nous ne sommespas cMti6s. noon-some Pa Shah-tea-eh. 

4 Nous ne parttmes pas hier. noon-par-team Fa E-air. 

5 Nous sortimes aussit6t. noose sore-t«am oh-see-toe. 



6 II m*6tonne beaucoup. 

7 Qui I'a baptist ? 

8 II faut parler, papa I'a dit. 

9 II m'a donn^ des coups. 

10 Elle Faiine beaucoup. 

11 II m'a laiss6 cet anneau. 

12 Qui Fa dit ? 

13 Les domestiques les quittent. 

14 Elle Fa permis. 

15 II les loue. 

16 Elle Fa beaucoup lou6. 

17 Us daignaient les 6couter. 

18 U lui parlait beaucoup. 



ill may-ton beau-coo. 

key la baa-tease-eh ] 

ill foe par-lay, papa la Dee. 

ill Ma Don-eb day coo. 

ell lame beau-coo. 

ill Ma. lay-say set-ah-no. 

key, la Dee ? 

layDoe-m^ss-tick lay-kit. 

ell la pare-me. • 

ill lay loo. 

ell la beau-coo 16o-eh. 

ill day-knee-eh lays-eh-coo-Tay. 

ill-we par-lay beau-coo. 



19 Eclairez-la. 

20 Quittez-les. 

21 Achetez-lui des bas. 

22 Portez-les k la poste. 

23 Mettez-les au cacbot. 

24 Aimez-les. 

25 Donnez-la h. votre soeur. 

26 Appelez-les. 



eb-day-ray-la. 
kit-Tay-lay. 
ash-tell-we day baa. 
port-Tay-lay ah la post. 
may-Tay-lay ob cash-oh. 
eh-may-lay. 
Don-eh-ia ah vote-Sir. 
iji-play-lay. 



27 n parlait d'elle. 



ill par-lay dell. 



TRANSLATION. 



1 They were drawing. 

2 They were shutting the doors. 



3 We are not chastised.- 

4 We did not leave yesterday. 

5 We went out immediately. 



15 He praises them. 

16 She has much praised hira. 

1 7 They deigned to listen to them. 

18 He used to speak much to her. 



6 It much astonishes me. 

7 Who baptised him ? 

8 'Y'ou must speak, Papa said so. 

9 He gave me some blows. 

10 $he loves him much. 

11 He has left me this ring. 

12 Who said it? 

13 The servants leave them. 
24 She bae permitted it. 



19 Light her. 

20 Leave them. 

21 Buy her some stockings. 

22 Take them to the post-office. 

23 Put them in prison. 

24 Love them. 

25 Give it to your sister. 

26 Call them. 



27 BLo -waa w^«2!bml% o^Vctv 



46 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



FRBNCH. 

elles. 



elle. 



PRONUNCIATION. 

say-Tay poor-ell. 
set bag en poor-ell. 
ill-eh pray dell. 



1 C6tait pour eiies. 

2 Cette ba^ie est pour elle. set bag eh poor-ell. 

3 II est pres d*elle. ill-eh pray dell. 

4 II I'a fiiit pour elle. ill-la my poor-ell. 
6 Ces figues 6taient pour elles. say figs-eh-Tay poor ell. 

key ah &re-may set port 1 

say-tell. 

ill la fay come-ell. 

(20 & 21) HOW TO ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS. 



6 Qui a ferm6 cette porte ? 

7 Cestelle. 

8 II Ta fait comme elle. 



9 Aime-t-il cette couleur.? 

10 Oui, il aime beaucoup cette 

couleur. 

11 A-t-il la pairel 

12 Oui, Madame, 11 a la paire. 

13 Qu'est-ill 

14 II est officier. 

15 Est-il militaire ? 

16 Oui, il est militaire. 

17 Est-il press6 ? 

18 II n'est pas press6. 

19 Oii a-t-il mis la clef 1 

20 II a mis la clef 3.'la porte. 

21 A-t-il tout dit ? 

22 Oui, il a tout dit. 

23 Od irait-elle ? 

24 Elle irait h Paris. 

25 A-t-elle pardonn6 ? 

26 Oui, elle a pardomi6. 

27 Est-il au cachet ? 



aim-till set cool-err ? . 

we, ill-aim beau-coo set cool -err. 

ah-till la pair 1 
we, mad-am, ill-ah la pair. 
Kate-iU 1 
ill-ate-office-E-eh. 
eh-till me-lee-tare ? 
we, ill-eh me-lee-tare. 
eh-till pray-say 1 
ill nay Pa pray-say. 
wAo ah-till me la clay ? 
ill-ah me la day ah la port, 
ah-till too Dee ? 
we, ill-ah too Dee. 
wAo B-ray-tell 1 
ell-B-ray-tah par-B. 
ah-tell par-Don-eh ? 
we, ell^ par-Don-eh. 
eh-till oh cash-oh ? 



TBANSLATION. 



1 
2 

3 
4 
5 



It was for them. 
This ring is for her. 
He is Dear her. 
He has done it for her. 
These figs were for them. 



6 Who shut this door ? 

7 It is she. 

8 He did it as she did. 



9 Does he like this colour? 
10 Yes, he likes this colour very 

much. 
J J Has he the pAirf 
22 Yes, Madam, be baa the pair. 



13 What is he? 

14 He is an officer. 

15 Is he a military man ? 

16 Yes, he is. 

17 Is he in a hurry ? 

18 He is not in a hurry. 

19 Where has he put the key ? 

20 He has put the key to the door. 

21 Has he said all? 

22 Yes, he has. 

23 Where would she go ? 

24 She would go to Paris. 

25 Has she forgiven ? 

26 Yes, she haa for^yeii. 

27 1b he m pxiBouX 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 47 

PRBNCH. PROKimOUiTION. 

1 Oui, il J est. we, ill-^E eh. 

2 Oii est-il mort ? who eh-till more ? 

3 II est mort k Blois. ill^eh more ah blae-ah. 

4 Od a-t-il mis le tire-botte ? wAo ah-till mill-tier-boat 1 

5 II est ici. ill-eh-tea-see. 

6 Est-il potier ? eh-till pot-Eteh ? 

7 Oui, il est potier. we, ill-eh pot-E-eh. 

(22 & 23.) RfijLATIVB PRONOUNS. 

8 Tout_ce qu'il dit est faux. too-skill Dee eh foe. 

9 Aime-t-il les bas qu'il a ache- aim-till lay baa kill-ah ash-Tay 

t^s hier ? E-air. 

10 La dame h qui il parlait est lad-am ah key ill par-lay eh Ma 

ma sceur. Sir. 

1 1 Les dames qu'il comiait. led-am kill cou-eh. 

12 Elle r6pdte tout ce qu'il dit. ell ray-pet too-skill-Dee: 

13 II aimait ce qu*elle aimait. ill-aim-eh scale-aim-eh. 

14 Elle salt ce qu'il fait. ell say skill fiiy. 

(24 & 25.) -INTERROOATIVE PRONOUNS. 

15 Qui est 1^ ? key eh la ? 

16 A qui parlait-il ? • ah key par-lay-till 1 

17 Qui aiment-ils? key aim-till? 

18 Qui est-il ? key eh-tHl ? 

19 Qui est-elle ? * key eh-tell ? 

20 Qui est ici ? key eh-tea-see ? 

21 Qui a-t-H appele ? key ah-till ah-play ? 

22 Qui est mort ? k^ eh more ? 

23 Pour qui est-ce ? Poor key ace 1 

TRANSLATION. 

1 Yes, he is. 12 She repeats all that he says. 

2 Where did he die ? 13 He liked what she liked. 

3 He died at Blois. 14 She knows what he does. 

4 Where has he put the boot-jack 1 

5 It is here. 

6 Is he a potter? 15 Who is there ? 

7 Yes, he is. 16 Whom was he speaking to ? 

17 Whom do they like ? 

8 All that he says is fidse. 18 Who is he ? 

9 DoesheUke the stockings which 19 Who is she? 

he bought yesterday ? 20 Who is here ? 

10 The lady he was speaking to 21 Whom has he called \ 

is my sister. 22 Who \b dea^'V 

11 The ladiea tbat be knows. 2Z "Fox wYiom \a \\.% 



48 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



FRBNOH. 



1 Qui a ferm6 la porte ? 

2 Pour qui est celle-ci 1 

3 Pour qui est celle-1^ ? 

4 QuVt-il ? 

5 Qu*est-il amv6 ? 

6 Qu'y a-t-U ? 

7 Laquelle pr6f(lre-t41 1 

8 Lesquels aime-t-elle 1 

9 Lesquels pr6f6rait-il ? 

10 A Isw^uelle parlait-elle ? 

11 Auxquels parlait-elle ? 

12 Quel outil a-t-il ] 

13 Quelle reine aime-t-elle 1 

14 Quel habit pr6fdre-t-U ? 

15 Quelle belle in,atiii6e ! 



PRONUNCIATION. 

key ah fere-may la port ] 
poor key eh sell-see ? 
poor key eh sell-la ? 
Cat-ill 1 

Kate-ill ah-reave-eh ? 
key ah-till ? 



la kell pray-fere-till ? 
lay-kell' aim-tell ? 
lay-kell pray-fe,y-ray4ill 1 
ah la-kell par-lay-tell ? " 
oh-kell par-lay-tell ? 
kell wAo-tea ah-till ? 
kell rain aim-tell ? 
kell ah-bee pray-fere-till ? 
kell bell Ma-tea-nay ! 



(26 & 27.) NUMERAL ADJECTIVES ; CARDINAL NUMBERS. 



16 II a huit poules. 

17 Elle soupe k huit heures. 

18 Papa part k sept heures. 

19 'II a sept cartes. 

20 Elle a sept robes. 

21 Nous sommes sept. 

22 II fit six parts. 

23 Elle dine k midi. 

24 Quelle heure est-il ? 

25 U est six heures. 

26 II est huit hieures. 

27 Elle a achet6 trois bracelets. 

28 Elle a huit chS,le8. 



ill-ah we pool. 

ell soup-ah w//eat-err. 

Papa par ah set-err. 

ill-ah say cart. 

ell-ah say robe. 

noose-some set. 

il fee see par. 

ell dean-ah-me-Dee. 

kell-err eh-till ? 

ill-eh seize-err. 

ill-eh wAeat-err. 

ell-ah ash-Tay true-ah brass-lay. 

ell-ah we shall. * 



TRANSLATION. 



1 Who has shut the door ? 

2 For whom is this one ? 

3 For whom is that one ? 

4 What is the matter with him ? 

5 What has happened ? 

6 What is the matter ? 



.7 Which does he prefer ? 

8 Which does she like ? 

9 Which did he prefer ? 

10 Wbichone was she speaking to? 

1 1 To which one was she speaking ? 
42 What tool has he? 

}3 What queen doei she like ? 
J^ What coat doea be prefer % 



15 What a beautiful morning I 

16 He has eight hens. 

17 She sups at eight o'clock. 

18 Papa starts at seven o^clock. 

19 He has seven cards. 

20 She has seven dresses. 

21 We are seven. 

.22 He made six parts. 

23 She dines at twelve. 

24 What o'clock is it ? 

25 It is six o'clock. 

26 It is eight o'clock. 

27 She bought three bracelets. 
^8 ^he \xBB QVg^iV• ^[l!K?l^a. 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 



49 



FRINOH. 

1 Etaient-ils six ? 

2 II est midi. 

3 Elle a seize bagues. 

4 n est minuit. 

5 II a dix cravates. 

6 n a mille amis. 

7 Philippe a treize filets. 



PBONUKOIATIOir. 

eh-Tay-till cease 1 
ill-eh me-Dee. 
ell-ah says bag. 
ill-«h mean-we. 
ill-ah Dee cravat, 
ill-ah mill-am-E. 
fee-leap ah tra js fee-lay. 



(28 & 29.) 



ORDINAL NUHBSRS, ETC. 



8 Elle est la septi^me. 

9 Sixidme. Huiti^me. 

10 II est le quatri^me. 

11 Seizi^me. Treizi^m^ 



ell-eh la say-tea-aim. 
seize-E-aim. WAeat-E-aim. 
ill-ell cat-tree-aim. 
says-E-aim. trays-E-aim. 



12 La huitaine. lawe-ten. 

13 n est septlieures et demie. ill-eh set-err aid-me. 

14 Des milliers. day me-E-eh. 

15 Quart. Tiers. car. tea-air. 

16 Il€»thidtheurestroisqiiarts.ill-eh'wAeat-err trae^we car. 



(30.) 



INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 



17 Tout homme est mortel. too-Tom eh more-telL 

18 Oil 6taient tous nos amis 1 who eh-Tay too nose-ah-me ? 

19 On a achet6 des canards. on-ah ash-Tay day can-are. 

20 Elle a donn6 tout le th6. ell-ah Don-eh tool-l^r. 

21 II avait tous mes collets. ill-Aave-eh too may ^ohl-eh. 

22 Elle sait tout. ell say too. 

23 II a adinir6 tous les palais ill-ah add-me-ray too lay Pa-led- 



de la reine. 



la rain. 



TRANSLATION. 



1 Were they six ? 

2 It is twelve o'clock. 

3 She has sixteen riDgs. 

4 It is midnight. 

5 He has ten cravats. 

6 He has a thousand friends. 

7 Philip has thirteen nets. 

8 She is the seventh. 

9 Sixth. Eighth. 

10 He is the foqrth. 

11 Sixteenth. Thirteenth. 

12 The week. 

E 



13 It is half-past seven. 

14 Some thousands. 
16 Fourth. Third. 

16 It is a quarter to nine. 



17 All men are mortal. 

18 Where were all our friends ? 

19 They have bought ducks. 

20 She has given (away) all the tea. 

21 He had all my coUars. 

22 She knows aU. 

23 B.Q ViBA fiAnuxQ^tl^^^ o^f^^^"^^ 



r>o 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SXEMPLIFIEa 



mnroH. 



PRONnHOIATION. 



ON THE TENSES OF VERBS. 



(31 & 32.) 

1 Pierre aime h badiner. pea-air aim ah baa-Deo-nay. 

Philippe pr6fdre cet habit, fee-lip pray-fere set-ah-bee. 



2 
3 
4 
5 



lis dinent k sept heures. 
II aimait la paix. 
lis fermaient ces sacs. 

6 II cacheterait votre billet. 

7 II dessina cette rose. 

8 Ils'd^lidrent cette corde. 

9 Elle 6chappa au p^riL 

10 Chassez ces sots. 

11 Gardez ces papiers. 

12 Cessez votre rire. 

13 Lftchez la corde. 

14 Achetez votre beurre au 

march6. 

15 Hier il toussait beaucoup. 

16 H61lne n'est pas sortie. 

17 N'aurait-il pas dormi 1 

18 EUes n'auraient pas parl6. 

19 Elle r^pdte tout bas ce 

qu*il dit. 

20 II risque beaucoup. 

21 Marie a beaucoup dessin^. 

22 Ordonnez des glaces. 

23 Elle aurait oach^ oes oouteanx. ell-oh-ray cadi-eh say coo-toe. 



ill dean-tah set-err. 

ill-eh-may la pay. 

ill fare-may say-sack. 

ill cash-tray vote-bee-B-eh. 

ill day-seen-ah set rose. 

ill day-lee-air set cord. 

ell eh-Shah-Pa oh pay-reel. 

Shah-say say so. 

guard-eh say pap-E-eh. 

say-say vote rear. 

lash-eh la cord. 

"ash-Tay vote-burr oh marsh-eh. 

E-air ill too-say beau-coo. 
I/-N nay Pa sore-tea. 
no-ray-till Padoor-me ? 
ell no-ray Pa par-lay. 
ell ray-pet too baa skill Dee. 

ill risk beau-coo. 

Mar-re ah beau-coo day-see-nay. 

or-Don-eh day glass. 



(33 & 34.) 



ON THE SUBJUNCTIVE. 



24 A-t-elle peur qu*il dtne ici? ah-tell purr kill dean-E-see? 

25 Qu'ils partent aussitdt. kill paii-toe-see-toe. 

26 Qu'elles plient ces nappes, kell plea say nap. 



TRANSLATION. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 



Peter likes joking. 

Philip prefers this coat. 

lliey dine at seven o'clock. 

He loved peace. 

They were closing these bags. 

6 He would seal your note. 

7 He drew this rose. 

8 They-nntied this string. 

9 She escaped firom danger. 

10 Turn out these stupid fellows. 

11 Keep these papers. 

12 Leave off laughing. 
18 Let go the rope. 

Jd Bay your batter in the market. 
15 Yesterday be coughed mudi. 



16 Helen is not gone out. 

17 Would he not have slept? 

18 They would not have spoken. 

19 She repeats in a low voice what 

he says. 

20 He risks much. 

21 Maria has drawn much. 

22 Order some ices. 

88 She would have hid those knives. 



24 Is she afraid he should dine here! 

25 Let them set out inmiediate^. 

26 Let them fold up these table 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED; 6 1 

FBKRCH. PRONUKCUTIOK. 

1 Qu'il reste ici. , kill rest-E-see. 

2 II Mlait qu*ll pay&t ses ill &Aa.j kill pay-E-ah say debt. 

dettes. 

3 n s'^tonne qu'elle parte. ill say-ton kell part. 

4 Elle pr6f^re qu'il sorte. ell pray-fiire kill sort. 

5 II pr6fSrait qu'eUe mlt ses ill pray-fay-ray kell me say bag. 

bagues. 

6 Qu*n sache c6der. kill sash say-day. 

(35.) PABTICIPLB PAST WITH ^RE. 

7 Votre pdre est parti. vote-pare eh par-tea. 

8 Yotre tapissier est assis. vote-tap-pea-see-eh eh-tah-see. 

9 Get acteur est aim6. set act-err eh-Tay-may. 

10 Paul et Louis 6taient partis. Poll eh 1oo-e eh-Tay par-tea. 

11 Nos pdres 6taient aim^s. no pare eh-Tay-Tay-may. . 

12 0(1 6taient-ils all6s ? wAo eh-Tay-till ah-lay ? 

13 La reine est aim^e. la rain eh-Tay-may. 

14 Caroline est jpartie. car-oh-lean eh par-tea. 

15 La paix est sign^e. la pay eh see-knee-eh. 

16 Cette barridre est ferm6e. set bar-£-air eh £su:e-may. 

17 Nos robes 6taient d^chir^es; no robe eh-Tay day-she-ray. 

18 Nos soeurs 6taient aim^es. no Sir eh-Tay-Tay-may. 

19 Oil 6taient-elles allies ? wAo eh-Tay-tell ah-lay ? 

20 A quelle heure s'est-elle Ah keU-err say-tell ah-bee-E-eh ? 

habU16e1 ^ - 

21 Elles s*6taient habill^es k ell say-Tay-tah-bee-s-eh ah 

huit heures et demie. wAeat^rr aid-me. 

TBANSLATION. 

1 Let him remain here. 12 Where were they gonef 

2 It was Decessary that he should 

pay his debts. 13 The queen is loved. 

3 He 18 astonished that she is j^ Carofine is gone. 

going away. 15 Peace is signed. 

t ^® P""®?" K® s^o^W go out. le This gate is shut. 

5 He preferred she should put 

her rings on. , - ^ , 

6 Let him know how to yield. ^7 Our dresses were torn. 

18 Our sisters were loved. 

7 Your father is gone. 1^ Where were they gone ? 

8 Your upholsterer is seated. 

9 This actor is liked. 20 At what o'clock has she dressed 

herself? 

10 Paul and Lewis had left. 21 tlhev \i«A ^^i««aft^ ^«as*Ss5««e» -ftX* 

11 Our fiitibers were beloyed. hui-^^Mi^ «\!|^V 

m2 



52 FRENCH PBONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED. 

FSnOB. PSOHimOIATIOH. 

PABTICIPLE PAST WITH AVOIR. 

1 A-t-il d6chir6 oette robe ? ah-till day-she-ray set robe ? 

2 Oai, Madame, il Fa d6chir6e. we, mad-am, ill la day-she-ray. 

3 A-t-il ferm^ la porte ? ab-till &re-may la port ? 

4 Oai, il Ta fermee. we, ill la ^re-may. 

5 A-t-il fini cette chaise ? ah-tUl fee-knee set chaise ? 

6 II Ta finie. ill la fee-knee. 

7 EUe a achet^ des parasols, ell-ah ash-Tay day parasol. 

8 Quels parasols a-t-elle achet^s ? kell parasol ah-tell ash-Tay ? 

9 II a apport6 ces papiers. ill-ah ah-port-Tay say pap-K-eh. 

10 Quels papiers a-t-il apport^s ? keU pap-s-eh ah-till ah-port-Tay ? 

11 Qui a achet^ cette seUe ? key ah ash-Tay set sell. 

12 (Test votre soeur qui Ta say vote-Sir key la ash-Tay. 

achet^e. 

13 Quels palais de la reine kell Pa-led-la rain ah-till add- 

a-t-il admires ? me-ray ? 

(36 & 37.) ADYERBS. 

14 n faut y aller. ill foe-tea ah-lay. 

15 Tout est mystdre ici-bas. too-Tay miss-tsa:^ B-see-baa. 

16 .11 partit aussitdt. ill par-tea-toe-see-toe. 

17 II saute trds-haut ill sot tray-oh. 

18 Parlez tout haut. par-lay too oh. 

19 Parlez tout bas. par-lay too baa. 

20 II est pis qu'hier. ill-eh pea key-air. 

21 La bi^re est ici. la bee-air eh-tea-see. 

22 Qui est R? key eh la? 

23 II y a beaucoup d'eau. ill-E-ah beau-coo doe. 

24 n a fait beaucoup d'essab. ill-ah &y beau-coo daynsay. 

(37 & 38.) PREPOSITIONS. 

25 Votre pdre est-il h Paris ? vote-pare eh-till ah par-E ? 

TRANSLATION. 

1 Has he torn this dress ? 14 You must go there. 

2 Yes, Madam, he has. 15 All is mystery here below. 

8 Has he shut the door? 16 He weut away immediately. 

4 Yes, he has. 17 He leaps very high. 

6 Has he finished this chaise ? 18 Speak up. 

6 He bas. 19 Speak in a low voice. 

7 She has bought parasols. 20 He is worse than yesterday. 

8 What parasols has she bought? 21 The beer is here. 

9 He has brought these papers. 22 Who is there ? 

10 What papers has he brought? 23 There is much water. 

11 Who has bought this saddle ? 24 He has made many trials. 

12 Your sister did. 

13 What palaces of the que^n has 

lie admired t ' 25 Is yoxir t«i^«c «X>'^%sna\ 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXiafPLIFIEB. 53 

nXSCB. FRONUKCUnON. 

1 A-t-il 6t6 k Paris ? ah-till eh-Tay ah par-B 1 

2 Cette couleur sied k votre set cool-err see-eh-tah vote-Sir. 

soeur. 

3 Est-il chez lui ? eh-till shell-we ? 

4 Sortez apr^s votre diner. sore-Tay ah-pray vote-Dee-nay. 

5 Ces ch&les 6taient pour nos say shall eh-Tay poor no Sir. 

sceurs. 

6 II alia au-delii. de la ville. ill-ah-la odd-lad la veal. 

7 n est ll c6t6 d'elle. ill-eh-tah cote-eh deU. 

8 Pour qui est-ce 1 poor key ace ? 

9 Eestez pris d'eUe. rest-eh pray delL 

10 II a des has de fil. ill-ah day bad-feeL 

(39 & 40.) CONJUNCTIONS. 

11 Si elle sort, qu'il sorte aussL see ell sore, kill sort-toe-see. 

12 II n*est ni beau ni laid. ill nay knee beau knee lay. 

13 II fait beau, car ils sortent. ill fiiy beau, car ill sort 

14 Votre soeur et votre cou- vote-Sir eh vote-coos-in eh-Tay- 

sine 6taient ici hier. tea-see s-air. 

15 Donpez les carpes ou les don-eh lay carp wAo lay sole. 

soles. 

IDIOMS. 

16 II a peur. iU-ah purr. 

17 II feit chaud r6t6. ill fay show lay-Tay. 

18 Ma m^re a chaud. Ma mare-ah show. 

19 Yotre cousine a tort. vote coos-in ah tore. 

TRANSLATION. 

1 Has he been to Paris f 12 He is neither handsome nor 

2 This colour becomes your sister. ^gly* 

3 Is he at home ? ' 1 3 It is fine, for they are going out. 

4 Go out after your dinner. 14 Your sister and your^ eousin 

5 These shawls were for our sisters. were here yesterday. 

6 He went heyoDd the town. 15 Give the carps or the soles. 

7 He is by her side. 

8 For whom is this ! 

9 Bemain near her. 16 He is afraid. 

10 He has some thread stockings. 17 It is hot in summer. 

18 My mother is hot. 

11 If she goes out, let him go also. 19 Your cousin is wrong. 



«■ o 



54 
A SYNOPTICAL TABLE 

OF TUB 

GENERAL RULES OF THE FRENCH PR0NUNCLA.TION, 

nr WHICH THB STUDENT MAY, AT A OLANCB, 8BB ITS CHIBF PBCULIABinSS, 
AND RBFBR TO THBM WHBN REQUIRED. 

The pupil is to be practised on the nouns and adjectives contained in this table 

with the verbs avoir and itre. 

VOWELS. 

1. A is generally pronounced as a in bar. 

La table, la stJade, la cage, la date, papa, la rage, avare, rare. 

2. Ji is generally pronounced as ay in rfay. 

Le cafe, le m^tal, la frigate, Top^ra, agrdable, l^al, la vall^. 

3. £, S are generally pronounced as ^ in (hey. 

La br^che, la sc^ne, la sphere ; la fete, la crdme, la bdte, la bdche. 

4. E, unaccented, when pronounced, has the sound of e in over, 
L'arsenal, Tarsenic, dehors, out ; s'abstenir, to abstain. 

5. Ef unaccented, is sometimes not heard at all, as in bracelet, 
Mddecine, matelot. Pronounce — ^maid-seen, mat-low. 

6. E, unaccented, is mute at the end of words. 

La rose, la cause, la balle, la flamme, de la flanelle, une figue. 

7. E, unaccented, is pronounced as aijy when followed by a 

consonant. 
Les, thCf them ; les clefs,, the keys ; paasez, pass ; le nez, the nose. 

8. / is generally pronounced as the English letter e. 

La visite, le diner, le vice, la cit^, timide, rigide, sterile, 11 dtne. 

9. O is generally pronounced as the English letter o. 
La prose, le profit, le piano, anecdote, il approche, la robe. 

10. £/ is nearly pronounced as a in the popular pronunciation 

of Christmas, where a has the sound of a dull u. The 
sound of this letter can be learnt well only by hearing. ' 
La vertu, la rhubarbe, une statue, une dispute, une tulipe. 

11. y is pronounced as the English letter e. 

Une analyse, un syst^me, un abyme, an abyss ; une syllable. 

NASAL SOUNDa 

12. Am^ arty aen, ean, em, en, are pronounced as an in want. 

Une lampe, un ruban, la distance, Jean ; un temple, la cl^mence. 

13. Aim, ain, eim, ein, im, in^ ym, i/n, are pronounced as in in kind. 
Un peintre, un prince, impossible, principal, simple, le pain (n-ead. 

14. Om, on, eom, are sounded as on in / ivont, 

Un compliment, une tombe, un concert, un sermon, une nation. 

15. Urn, un, eun, are pronounced as un in hunt, 

Un parf^mi, humble, brun. Lundi, Monday ; commun. 

16. Oin is sounded as oo in too', and in in kind, ^ 
Les soins, the cares ; moins, less ; loin, far ; pointe, t^moin, witness. 

1 7. En , preceded by a vowel, is generally pronounced as in in kind. 
Un historien, un Italien, un magiclen, tin musicien, un Parisien. 

18. Ent^ at the end of third persons plural of a verb, is silent. 
Ila dtnent, Ub soupbrent, lis T^p^teraieix^., pTOTio\ui<^ \U ((ean. 

DOUBLE VOWl&ia. 

J^' At, ei, af/^ ey, are pronounced aa ay in daji. ^ 

^paire, 1a chaise, the chair ; une veiive, coT\\ara.\te, iA^€w«tt^> 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED 55 

20. Au is pronounced as o in no, 
Augure, automne, au, aiix, to ike, la cause ; au vaisseau, to the vessel. 

21. Eu, ceu, are pronounced as e in over, 
Odieuz, contagieux, du bceuf, some beef; studieux, bleu, pieux. 

22. Eu is, however, pronounced nearly as a in Christmas in the 

perfect definite, the imperfect of the subj., and part, past 
of avoir i to have. 
J'eus, J'ai eu, Que j'eusse, Qu'il etlt, eu, had. 

23. OiyCoi^ are pronounced nearly as r>a/i in Noah, orueinstie and aive. 
La Gloire, une histoire, un auditoire, un promontoire. 

24. Ow, oH, 0^, are pronounced as oo in too. 
La croiite, oti, where; vous, you; la soupe^ la source, un secours. 

25. Ui is pronounced as we. 
La ruine, le finlit, lui, him ^ une huitre, an oyster; la nuit, the night, 

CONSONANTS. 

26. Consonants in French have generally, in the beginning of 

a syllable, the same power as in English. 
Une calamity, une dette, la beauts, une cat^gorie, favorable. 

27. Consonants at the end of words are generally silent. 
Le pistolet, vertueux, fiirieux, le chocolat, prdf^rer, un combat. 

28. Consonants at the end of words are sounded on the next 

word, when that word begins with a vowel, or h mute, 
and is necessary to complete the sense of the first. 

C'estwabsurde, cet^orateur, ceswillustres g^n^raux, des^xcuses. 
29. C, F, i?, are generally sounded at the end of a word. 

Un sac, un roc, Tair, actif, un chef, un bloc, excessif. 

30. C before a, o, u, is pronounced as in English. 
Un c4ble, une cour, une colonic, un coUdge, une com^e. 

31. C before i, e, is pronounced as *. 
Un cercle, un Edifice, un lacet, une c^rdmonie, un cimeti^re. 

32. LL, preceded by i, are generally liquid ; that is, not heard. 
La famille, la paille, the straw ; pronounce nearly asJa-me-E, pie, 

33. C (with a cedilla) is also pronounced as s, 
II a re9U, he has received ; il mena9ait, he was menacing, 

34. J is nearly pronounced as < in pleasure. 
La justice, sa Majesty, injuste, abject, joyeux, la jalousie. 

35 G has the same sound as .; when followed by e, ^, t, y ; it is 
pronounced as in English when followed by a, o, u. 
Une orange, nous prot^gions, un danger, un usage, un dialogue. 

36. H is never heard in IVench words. 
Ces hachis, las hdros : pronounce say ash-E ; lay eh-roe, 

37. Th is pronounced as T. 
Le th^, un ath^e, une th^orie : pronounce, Tay, ah-Tay, Tay-oh-re. 

38. Ph is pronounced as F. 
La philosophie, le phosphore, la philanthropic, une pharmsAvb. 

39. Chia pronounced as Sh. 
La chimie, ia chicor^e, le cMtimenViui »xOca\j£cXa, "^sk^ Okss^^^- 

40. Q always followed by u, aa in ■Eiig)as\i, Sa ^wtAr^ ^»^ \ vvkv 
Udb quantit4, la, musique, la qua\iU,\».ct\\.\<\a«a, Qe»^^^^^> V^"^ ^ 



CCkS&. 



66 



MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISE 

OK THB 

GENERAL RULES OF THE FRENCH PRONUNCIATION. 



Ce parfum est agitable. 
Yoici la table de ma niSce. 
II pr6f§re le cidre h la bidre. 
Us acceptent le tli6. 
L'air est frais. 
Hs ont puni Jules. 
Qui 6tudie la nature ? 
(Jest trds-commun. 
II admire cette histoire. 
Charles a six razoirs. 
La paix est n^cessaire. 
II aime la soupe. 
Ces melons sont d^licieux. 
Vous avez puni ma nidce. 
Qui a un morceau de sucre? 
U a beaucoup d'ennemis. 
Donnez-moi du pain. 
U pr6f(^re le chocolat. 
Jules a du caf(§. 
Ma soeur est aimable. 
0(1 sont vos enfants ? 
Mon neveu a six p^ches. 
H61dne a la carte de Clara. 
Ce calcul est exact. 
Hs admirent la sculpture. 
L'abricot eist un fruit agr6able. 
Sa mine est certaine. 
Cette nation est puissante. 
H a d6nonc6 ses complices. 
Aimez-Yous les pigeons ? 
La nuit est obscure. 
Nous avons 6t6 au concert en- 
semble. 
Ce prince n'est pas clement. 
Ma soeur a une robe bleue. 



Hiis perfume is agreeable. 

Here is my niece's table. 

He prefers cider to beer. 

They accept tea. 

The air is fresh. 

They have punished Jule& 

Who studies nature? 

It is very common. 

He admires this history. 

Charles has six razors. 

Peace is necessary. 

He likes soup. 

These melons are delicious. 

You have punished my niece. 

Who has a piece of sugar? 

He has many enemies. 

Give me some bread. 

He prefers chocolate. 

Jules has some coffee. . 

My sister is amiable. 

Wnere are your children ? 

My nephew has six peaches. 

Helen nas Clara's map. 

This calculation is exact. 

They admire sculpture. 

The apricot is an agreeable fruit. 

His ruin is certain. 

This nation is powerful. 

He has denounced his accomplices. 

Do you like pigeons ? 

The night is obscure. 

We have been to the concert 

together. 
This prince is not clement. 
My sister has a blue dress. 



MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN PRONUNCIATION. 



The following pieces are selected from the Second Part 
of our work ; consisting of anecdotes^ historical facts, bons- 
mots, &c. 

In this part a literal translation of the first five pieces is 
given, so that the peculiar construction of the French lan- 
guage may be more readily perceived. This is followed by 
one of a freer character; and in the remaining lessons, 
only the English of such sentences or words which are 
difficult. 



L'eloge en par tie double, 

Un Anglais etant venu voir M. de Voltaire sL Femey, 
celui-ci lui demanda d'ou il venait: le voyageur lui dit qu*il 
avait passe quelque temps avec M. de Haller. Aussitot le 
patriarche s eerie: " C'est un grand homme que M. de 
Haller, grand poete, grand naturaliste, grand philosopbe, 
homme presque universel ! '* " Ce que vous dites Id, lui 
repondit le voyageur, est d'autant plus beau, que M. de 
Haller ne vous rend pas la mSme justice." " Helas ! " re- 
pondit M. de Voltaire, "nous nous trompons peut-^tre 
tons les deux." 

The praise in part double (two parts). 

An Englishman being come to-see M. de Voltaire at Femey, 
this-here him asked, from where he was-coming : the traveller 
him said that he had passed some time with M. de Haller. 
Immediately the patriarch himself cries : " It is a great man that 
M. de Haller, great poet, great natmralist, great philosopher, man 
nearly tmiversal 1 " " TmX which you say there," him ^plied 
the traveller, '^ is of so-much more fine, that M. de Haller not 
you renders the same justice." " Alas ! " replied M. de Voltaire, 
" we ourselves deceived perhaps all the two (both)." 

Generosite pen couteuse, 
Une dame tres-riche, mais assez %NM^,«:^^\\.\\3i»ia>toi.^<i 
de faire A ses amies beauooup de fxe^exiXa — en-^^t^^"^* ^ 



58 MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN PRONUNCIATION. 

Tune d'elles elle avait souvent dit : '* Ma chere amie, je 
vous donnerai la semaine prochaine un joli collier de 
perles." A une autre : " Vous recevrez bientot de moi un 
chdie de cacbemife." A une troisieme : ** J'aurai sous peu 
le plaisir de vous offrir une jolie bagup de diamant." Se 
trouvant un jour entouree de quelques-uues de ces memes 
amies, d qui elle avait tant de fois fait des promesses de ce 
genre, elle commen^ait de nouveau d faire etalage de cette 
generosite peu couteuse. Une d'elles, se toumant vers sa 
voisine, lui dit : ** Si cette cbere Madame Delville ouvrait 
sa bourse aussi facilement et aussi souvent qu'elle ouvre 
la boucbe pour nous promettre de belles cboses^ elle serait 
certainement la femme la plus genereuse du monde." 

Cheap generosity, 

A veiy rich lady, but rather miserly, was in the habit of 
makinfir many presents to her friends — ^in words. To one of 
them Mie had often said : " My dear friend, I will give you next 
week a pretty pearl necklace." To another: "You will soon 
receive from me a. cashmere shawl." To a third : " I shall have, 
in a very short time, the pleasure of offering you a pretty dia- 
mond ring.'' Finding herself, one day, surrounded by some of 
these same friends, to whom she had made promises of this kind 
so ofben^ she was beginning again to make a show of this cheap 
generosity. One of them, turning towards her neighbour, said 
to her : ^ If that dear Madam Delville opened her purse as easily 
and as often as she opens her mouth to promise us fine things, 
she would certainly be the most generous woman in the world." 

« 

Episode du Siege de Jaffa, 

Le 22* d'infanterie 16gere etait en colonne derri^re un 
pli du terrain qui servait de place d'armes. II attendait^ 
le signal pour monter d la breche. Le general en chef 
etait debout^ pres de la batterie, indiquant du doigt? au 
colonel Lejeune, de ce regiment, la manoeuvre qu'il devait 
faire,* lorsqu'une balle de fusil jeta* son chapeau a terre, 
passa sL trois pouces^ de sa t^te, et renversa raide mort le 
colonel, qui avait cinq pieds dix pouces. *' Voila la 
seconde fois depuis que je fais la guerre/' dit le soir. Napo- 
leon Bonaparte, •' que je dois la vie a ma taille de cinq pieds 
deux pouces." 

(1) was waiting for. (2) standing. (3) with the finger. (4) he was 
tonutke.^ (6) Hbrew. (6) mches. 



MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN PRONUNCIATION. 59 

Louis XL et V Astrologue, 

Un astrologue' predit la mort^ d'une dame que Louis XI. 
aimait beaucoup : elle mourut^ au temps marque Le roi 
crut^ que la prediction avait ete la cause de la mort de cette 
dame. II fit venir* I'astrologue* avec I'intention de le faire 
Jeter par la fen^tre pour le punir. Celui-ci previt* ce qui 
I'attendait, et lorsque le roi lui demanda avec ironic et en 
faisant^ allusion a sa science, s'il savait^ quel sort lui etait 
reserve, il repondit: " Oui, Sire, car les astres m ont appris** 
depuis longtemps que je mourrais® trois jours avant votre 
M ajeste." Ce prince credule et superstitieux le crut, et au 
lieu de^o faire perir I'astrologue ainsi qu*il en avait d'abord 
eu I'intention, il le renvoya^^ comble de presents, et apres 
I'avoir engage d bien soigner sa sante. 

(1) death. (2) died. (3) believed. (4)^/t;«i/r, sentfor. (5) foresaw. 
(6) making. (7) knew. . (8) taught. (9) would die. (10) au lieu de, 
instead of. (11) sent him back. 

La Comte Louis de Canosse, 

Le comte Louis de Canosse, eveque Italien, avait a 
Rome une belle argenterie.^ On y vbyait^ plusieurs pieces 
d'un ouvrage exquis ; il y avait entr'autres un gobelet dont 
I'anse^ etait faite en forme de tigre, et dont le travail etait 
admirable. Un gentilhomme connu* du prelat envoya un 
jour le prier de lui prater,® pour peu de temps, une pi^ce si 
rare, sous pretexte d'en vouloir faire faire une pareille : 
mais comme il la garda plus de trois mois, le prelat la fit 
redemander.® Peu de temps apres, le m^me gentilhomme 
envoya encore pour emprunter^ une saliere qui avait la ' 
forme d'une ecrevisse.® Le comte Louis repondit avec un 
sourire® railleur, au page quele gentilhomme avait envoy e : 
" Dites a votre maitre que si le tigre, de tous les animaux 
le plus agile, a ete ti'ois mois. d revenir, Je crains^o que 
I'ecrevisse, qui est plus lente,^^ n'ait besoin d'autant 
d'annees : qu'il m'en dispense done, s'il lui plait." 

(1) silver plate. (2) did see. (3) the handle. (4) known. (5) to 
lend him. (6) ask back again. (7) to borrow. (8) crab. (9) smile. 
(10) I fear. (11) slow. 

Sully et les court isans de Louis XI I L 

Un jour Louis XIII. fit «.ppe\eT^ «t\3L ^^«k<& \^ ^^vR. ^^ 
Sullj^ancien ministre d'HenrilY.,i^o\\T\e> ^oxisviJA»^ «ox^«v«k 



60 MISOELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN PRONUNCIATION. 

affaire importante. L'air grave du Vieux guerrier, sa 
demarche^ simple et sans preteDtion, ses habits passes de 
mode et plus qu'ordinaires, attirerent^ rattention des jeunes 
et elegants courtisans qui entouraient^ le monarque : lis se 
mirent^ a rire et a faire des plaisanteries sur cette mise® d*un 
autre siecle, sur cette simplicity surannee7 Le grand 
homme d'etat les entendit,® et apres avoir jetfe sur eux un 
regard digne et severe : ** Sire," dit-il au roi, " lorsque le 
pere de votre Majeste me faisait® I'honneur de me consulter, 
il ordonnait aux bouffons de sa cour de se retirer^^ dans 
I'antichambre." 

(1) Jit appeler, called. (2) gait. (3) attracted. (4) snrrounded. 
(5) thev began. (6) dressing. (7) antiquated. (8) heard them. 
(9) made. (10) to withdraw. 

Le prix de lafumee, 

Un gascon, qui un certain jour avait un excellent appetit 
et tres-peu d'argent, se vit force de se contenter d*un mor- 
ceau de pain sec pour son diner. II mangeait done brave- 
ment en se promenant, lorsque tout-a-coup il se tronva d 
la porte d*un bon restaurateur. Une odeur delicieuse 
s'echappait par la fenetre de la cuisine ; notre gascon 
s'arr^te, bume la bonne odeur, mange ensuite une bouchee 
de son pain, hume encore, et continue son diner de cette 
maniere ingenieuse et economique. 

Pendant ce temps le traiteur I'observait, et lorsque la 
demiere bouchee fut avalee, il vint, en goguenardant, 
demander le prix de la fumee de ses plats. " Le prix de 
la fumee P bien avec plaisir," lui repondit notre homme, et 
tirant de sa bourse deux ou trois sous il se mit i les faire 
danser dans sa main. ''Allons/' dit le fameux cuisinier, 
" depechons-nous." " He bien," repliqua le Gascon, "payez- 
vous du son de mon argent." 



END OP FRENCH PRONUNCIATION CONVEYED BY ENGLISH SOUNDS. 



M. C. OSBORNE, PRllfTKR AKD LITHOGRAPHER, 29, BEVNBTT'S HILL, BIRHIKOIIAM. 



61 



FEENCH PKONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED 



AND 



FEENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 



The object of this work is to present a series of gradual 
lessons made as easy as possible for beginners, and particularly 
for children. 

To attain this end, the work offers the following features 
and improvements : — 

1. A vocabulary, and sentences composed of words of one 
syllable, exemplifying systematically the various sounds of 
the vowels, the diphthongs, the nasal sounds, and the union of 
words, with reference to the rules on pronunciation to be 
found farther on. 

2. A few anecdotes, first in French, afterwards with an 
interlineary and literal translation. 

3. A vocabulary, and short sentences in daily use. 

4. Eules on pronunciation, with exercises on these rules. 

5. The sentences of the exercises exemplify at the same 
time a verb, and one of the grammatical rules given in the 
corresponding lessons of the First Part of the "French Lan- 
guage Simplified." 

6. In every alternate lesson there is also a rule relating to 
the words that are alike, showing fully the affinities of the 
French and English languages. 

7. The sentences and exercises which exemplify the rules 
on pronunciation, grammar, and verbs, are complete phrases, 
chiefly composed of words similar in both languages, and in 
common use ; they are therefore very easy, supplying ^^ 
student, in a short time, with an extensw^ n wsOovsJ^sm:^ • 



62 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 



RULES ON FRENCH PRONUNCIATION. 

It has been said that pronunciation can only be properly 
conveyed by oral teaching, and such is the case, more especially, 
as regards the various sounds of the vowels. These rules 
cannot, therefore, supersede altogether the lessons of the 
master ; but they may be very useful, and can aid the efforts of 
the teacher, particularly when the student is not with him ; 
and for those who study alone, they are invaluable ; besides, 
by the assistance of these rules given systematically, all 
the difficulties and irregularities of the French pronunciation 
are gone through, when, by reading books, even with a 
master, a great number may be read without ever accomplish- 
ing this. 

For the pronunciation of the consonants, the directions 
given will be often as valuable as oral teaching : for instance, 
when the student reads that the consonant p is never to be 
heard in the word sept (see p. 148) ; that the ^ is to be 
soimded when that word is at the end of a sentence, or is 
followed by a word beginning with a vowel, or h mute (see 
158); that the t is- silent when sept comes before another 
word beginning with a consonant, or h aspirated ; that the t 
is heard in sept before the names of the months of the year, 
even those beginning with a consonant, the pupil will ^ow 
the peculiarities of the pronunciation of the p and t in sept 
as well as if the master had pronounced the word to him, 
assuming that he knows the pronimciation of the e followed 
by a consonant sounded, and not sounded (see page 158). 

These rules on pronunciation will therefore serve to guide 
the learner in preparing his lesson. Are l and s in fils, son^ 
to be pronounced or not ? The difficulty is solved by refer- 
ring to 6, page 142, on the pronunciation of the letter L; 
and 2, page 154, on the pronunciation of the S. 

Though, for the sake of brevity, mention is not made of 
authorities for the rules of pronunciation, the student may 
feel assured that no care has been spared to give the most 
admowledged pronunciation of such words as may offer some 
doubt ; suffice it to add, that " Le Dictionnaire Natiomdj' by 
Beacherelle atn4, and '* Le Traite de Pronondation^'' by Morin 
(particularlj for the sound of the vowels) have been chiefly 




FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 63 

SIMILARITIES OF THE FRENCH AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES. 

Great similarity exists between the English, and French 
languages. More than six thousand words are alike, or nearly 
so, in both : a fact that has hitherto practically been over- 
looked by French teachers. 

Nearly all the words denoting moral qualities are alike : 
such as la patience, la resigitatioriy la sobriete, la cliaritS, la 
temperance, la justice, etc. 

As the similarity exists to the same extent in every other 
class of words, it is obvious that with the help of a few others, 
such as the articles, pronouns, conjunctions, prepositions (as 
le, mon, ce,je, votis, qui, mats, pour, S^c:), it is soon possible 
to compose simple sentences. The only thing required is, 
that the student become well acquainted with the pronuncia- 
tion of these words, in order to understand them when they 
are spoken, and to be understood when he utters them him- 
sel£ 

If the learner, in reading a French book, meets "with such 
words as instrument, rat, table, gloire, aimable, he will at once 
perceive their similarity, and conclude that these words have 
the same meaning as in English. But we do not teach the 
language merely for translating French into English, an ac- 
quirement comparatively easy, but also for translating English 
into French, and more particularly to make the pupil under- 
stand the language when spoken to him, and to enable him 
to speak and write it. 

1^0 w, the pupil could not think of using these words unless 
he had already met with them, nor understand them when 
spoken, unless he had properly learnt their pronunciation. 
For instance, if the French words " un instrument " are pro- 
perly pronounced, a beginner who has not yet heard them 
will not be able to understand their meaning, though the 
English word instrument is spelt exactly the same. The like 
observation applies to many words quite similar in spelling, 
showing, therefore, that the ear must be practised in order to 
understand even words alike in both languages, when they 
are spoken. 

In the first edition, as in many other grammars, a table of 
these terminations is given, with a few words, iUustta.tMx^''^^ 
similarities of the two languages •, W^i \\» \a Ock^Ssi^^a* *^'?^ 



64 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

sucli principles merely set forward are not of great utility, as it 
is not to be expected that, by simply looking at a table of rules 
and words, the student will become acquainted with them. 
Even, words that are similar in both languages become a real 
acquisition for the ear, and can be used freely in speaking or 
writings only by practice ; therefore, in each lesson, the sys- 
tem has been adopted of speaking of, and illustrating, one or 
two terminations. The same system is followed in the 
" French Language Simplified," where those words, that are 
nearly or quite alike, are brought together, with examples of 
the pronunciation, the verbs, and the grammar. 

When the attention of the student is directed to the great 
number of words that are similar in both languages, care 
must be taken as to their use. Though there are many of 
these words, it does not follow that all have precisely the 
same meaning in both languages. The English word trouble, 
for example, cannot be translated by its French homonym 
trouhUy which means confusion. To attend is never to be 
translated by the French attendre, which it so much resem- 
bles, as the French signifies to wait for, to expect. The same 
may be said of the following i^nch worfs, which have 
an English homonym, but can be used only in the sense given 
here : — 

TJn billet, q note, Vn curfi, a vicar, 

TJne note, a bill, Vn vicaire, a curate. 

Tin bonnet, a lady*8 cap, Un piipille, a ward. 

Un chapeau, a bonnet ; a hat, Un lldve, a pupil, 

Un physician, a natural philosopher. Sensible, sensitive, 

Un mSdecin, a physician. Sens^, sensible, 

Un tuteur, a guardian. Un courtier, a broker. 

. Un pr^cepteur, a tutor, Un courtisan, a courtier. 

The English word to attend is generally very difficult to 
render ; attention must be paid to the accompanying word. 
The principal translations, however, are auivre, se trouver, 
alter ci, accompagner, etre au service de, se rendre, remplir, 
s'acquitter de, soigner, assister d, veiller sur, sHnteresser d, 
prendre des legom (d' un professeur), suivre {un cours). 



FBENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 65 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION, VERBS, GRAMMATICAL RULES, AND 
FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 

Though, no grammatical rules are here written at length, 
care has been taken not to lose sight of them altogether ; so, at 
the head of each lesson there are words or a sentence given 
as examples of the rules explained in the corresponding lessons 
of "The French Language Simplified," or "New French 
Grammar;" in the course of the lesson, the rule and also 
the verb, found in the corresponding one of that work, are 
exemplified ; these lessons of the ^ French Pronunciation and 
Similarities," being initiatory to those which are more theo- 
retical, though as practical, in " The French Language Sim- 
plified." 

The work has been written for private pupils, and also for 
large classes. The learner may therefore join a class at any 
time; for, by studying well the appointed lessons in the 
" French Pronunciation and Similarities" he will imderstand 
them as easily as those who may have a greater stock of 
words at command. When, however, there is a great difference 
between the pupils, it would be better and more satisfactory, 
that the more advanced should learn a lesson of the First 
Part of the " French Language Simplified," and the others, 
the corresponding lesson of the "French Pronunciation 
AND Similarities." But most students, even beginners, 
should learn, at the same time, the two corresponding lessons 
of both works, one completing the other. 

The rules on pronunciation should be read carefully by the 
student, and the sentences that exemplify those rules are to 
be read often with the master, and even committed to memory, 
if thought proper by the professor. 



66 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 



ON THE NAME AND PRONUNCIATION OF THE LETTERS. 

The alphabetical names, given to the consoi^ants in English 
or French, do not in the least affect their sound, in either 
language. The letters B, C, D, and so on, have the same 
sound in Bah, Cah, Dah, in both languages. It is therefore 
of no importance to an English student to know their names 
in French. He should, however, learn thoroughly the names 
of the vowels, and particularly their various sounds, — short, 
long, acute, or grave, — and remember that the consonants have 
generally the same power in both languages. 

The vowel o is pronounced the same, or nearly so, the dif- 
ference being that the French o has a more prolonged sound. 
If this vowel is put before or after ft, to form an English or a 
French syllable, it will be seen that the o and the h are 
pronounced oh and ho in French as in English, as — observer, 
to observe ; omement, ornament ; r^solu, resolute ; ^cho, echo, 
indigo, indigo ; bravo, &c. Though the consonant before or 
after which the o comes, is, like the other consonants, named 
differently to the English, in repeating the French alphabet, 
or when it stands alone, that consonant has precisely the 
same pronunciation as the English letter, when forming a 
syllable. Thus, the consonant h is called hee in English, and 
hay in French ; but the syllable oh is neither pronounced o-hee 
in English, nor o-hay in French; it is simply oh in both 
languages. Nor is ho pronounced hee-o in English, nor hayo 
in French, but ho ; therefore it is useless for the pupil to 
spend time in repeating the consonants, according to their 
name and pronunciation in the French alphabet. 



THE ALPHABET. 



67 



THE ALPHABET. 

1. The French alphabet is composed of twenty-six letters, which 
are named and pronounced as below. 

2. The first column of the following table contains the letters of 
the alphabet. The second gives their sounds on the old system. 
The third, their pronunciation according to the new. To pronounce 
the consonants on this system, add to their power the letter* u, as 
pronounced in hut oifur. 



letters. 


Old SyrteoL 


New System. 


Letters. Old System. New System. 


A 


ah. 


ah. 





0. 0. 


B 


hay. 


hu* 


p 


pay. jm. 


C 


say. 


su or hi. 


Q 


f must be learnt ) 
I from a master. } 


D 


day. 


du. 




( 


e as u in hut 


R 


air. ru. 


E 


«y- { 


^ as at^ in day. 


S 


ess. su. 




( 


> ^ as e^ in Ihey. 


T 


tay, tu. 


F 


eff. 


fu. 


U must be learnt from a master. 


G 


j«y- 


jfuoxgu. 


V 


vay. vu. 


H 


ash. 


hu. 


W 


doohlevay. vu. 


I 


e. 


e^ as ee in hee. 


X 


eexs. hsu. 


J 
K 


jee, 
hah. 


kah. 


Y 


i(Su!"-^^- 


L 


ell. 


lu. 


Z 


zade. zu. 


M 


emm. 


mu. 






N 


enn. 


nu. 




> 



OP SOME ORTHOGRAPHICAL SIGNS. 



ACCENTS. 

3. Accents are placed over vowels to denote peculiar sounds ; 
they have nothing to do with the stress. 

' * Add to the power of the consonant the letter u, as 80TULd«6k YEL*CDA^%£QiS^sS(^> 
vforda fur OT but. . . . ^ - 



68 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

4. There are three accents : — 

The acute accent ( ' ), going from right to left, is placed over the 
letter e only, and gives it an acute sound, as in caf^, coffee. 

5. The grave accent ( ' ), going from left to right, placed qver the 
e, makes the sound of this letter open and deep, as in stbcces, success ; 
phrcy father. 

6. The grave accent is also placed over 

ky to. at ') fa, has, 

l4, ikere ( to distinguish these 1 la, the, her, 

oil, where I words from 1 ou, or. 

des, from ) ( des, of, from the, some, 

7. The circumflex a>ccent ( * ) is placed over a vowel to show that 
the vowel is long ; it indicates generally that there has been a letter 
suppressed, as in dge, age ; tSte, head ; which formerly were spelt 
odige, teste. It is also used in words derived from tibe Greek or 
Latin; as ame, soul, which comes from anima, uyifcog; dne,»s8, 
from asinus. 

The Apostrophe. 

8. The apostrophe (') indicates the elision of a final vowel. A 
and E are suppressed before words beginning with a vowel or h 
mute, and an apostrophe used in the foUowing monosyllables, also 
in the compounds cffqvs : le, la, je, me, te, se, de, ce, ne, que. 

9. The i in si, if, jundeigoes elision only before il, he ; ils, they. 
S'il marche, if he walks. S'ils marchent, %f they wcUk. 



Cedilla, 

10. The cedilla ( §) is placed under the c when followed by a, o, u, 
to give it the soft sound of s. Frangais, French; legon, lesson; il 
regut, he received. 

Hyphen, 

11. The hyphen (trait-d! union), (-) is used to connect two or 
more words, as — Dtnent-ils ? Do they dine ? Farle-t-U, does he 
speak 1 Quatre^ngt-dix, ninety. 

Dia^esis. 

12. The difleresis {le trSma), ( ••) is placed over a vowel to indi- 
cate that it should be pronounced separately from the preceding or 

following rowel, as Noel, Christmas ; na^f, candid. 



LITTLB WORDS FOB BEGINNERS. 



69 



LITTLE WORDS FOR BEGINNERS. 

The followmg few pages are composed of short words, 
mostly of one syllable, representing the various shades of 
sound in the vowels, diphthongs, and nasal syllables, as 
explained in the theoretical and practical lessons on pronun- 
ciation. 

These lessons are to be read frequently with the master, 
until the student is quite proficient in them. 

In reading these words, the learner will bear in mind, that 
the consonants, at the beginning of a syllable, have always, 
with one or two exceptions, the same power as in EnglisL 
Besides, the consonants, that are not to be pronounced, are 
printed in Italics. 





T?ie letter A — see 2>p. 98, 


100. 


A. 


Has. 


Sabre. 


Sabre. 


A. 


To. 


Arbre. 


Tree. 


1a. 


The. 


Cadre. 


Frame. 


Lk 


There. 






Spa. 


Spa. 


La<. 


Tired. 


Va. 


Goes. 


Ba^. 


Stocking, low. 






As. 


Ace. 


Sac. 


Bag, sack. 






Lac. 


Lake. 


Ar^. 


Art. 


Cap. 


Cape. 


Par^. 


Goes away. 


Mai 


Evil, badly. 


Pare, 


Park. 


BaL 


Ball 


Tarc^. 


Tjate. 


Raf. 


Rat 


Car. 


For. 


Cha/. 


Cat. 






Table. 


Table. 


Carpe. 


Carp. 


Fable. 


Fable. 


Carte. 


Card. 


Sable. 


Sand. 


Harpe. 


Harp. 


Ta barre. 


The bar. 


Blftme. 


Blames. 


Ia classe. 


The class. 


Chaie. 


ShawL 


Jja datte. 


The date. 


P&le. 


Pale. 


Flatte. 


Flatters. 


i&^ 


k\gsu 



70 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 



The letter E—seepp, 102, 104. 



Pr^. 


Meadow. 


D6. 


Thimble. 


Cl^. 


Key. 


Grec. 


Greek. 


Per. 


Iron. 


Get. 


This. 


Sept. 


Seven. 


Ver^. 


Green. 


V&cd. 


Loses. 


SeL 


Salt. 


fere. 


Era. 


Pere. 


Father. 


M^re. 


Mother. 


Gr^ce. 


Greece. 


n^che. 


Arrow. . 


Dette. 


Debt 


Verre. 


Glass. 


SeUe.' 


Saddle. 


PeUe. 


Shovel. 


Cette. 


This. 


EUe. 


She. 



E^. 


And. 


^t 


Is. 


Le^. 


The. 


Me«. 
Dos, 


My. 

Some, of the. 


Qes. 


These. 


Pr^. 


Near. 


TreA 


Very. 


FSte. 


E^te. 


Cr^pe. 

B^te. 

Pr^che. 


Crape. 

Beast, stupid. 
Preaches. 


Chgne. 


Oak. 


Pr^te. 
P^che. 


Eeady. 
Peach. 


Je. 


I. 


Le. 


The. 


De. 


Of: 


Me. 


Me. 


Se. 

Nc.pa^ 

Ce. 


HimseK,itself, &c 
. Not 
This. 



Elle a le d^ e^ la cl6. 
Ce fer oat ir^-cher. 
Elle perci se« p^che^. 
Le cha^ e^ pres de la table. 
Le pre n'e^/ pas ver^. ' 
Le p^re a le seL 
La mere a la cr^me. 

Elle a le ch41e et le crepe. 

Le cha^ a le ra^. 

La m^re nW pas pr^te. 

Quel &ge a le fr^re ? 

Elle va k Spa. 

Elle a mal E la t^te. 



She has the thimble and the key. 
This iron is very dear. 
She loses her peaches. 
The cat is near the table. 
The meadow is not greeii. 
The father has the salt. 
The mother has the cream. 

She has the shawl and the crape. 
The cat has the rat. 
The mother is not ready. 
What age is the brother? 
She is going to Spa. 
She has the headache. 



LITTLE WORDS FOB BEGINNERS. 



71 



The letter I—eee p. 106, 



Si. 
Hbs, 
Lit 
Dix. 

ViL 
II ri^. 
II fi^. 
Ei^. 
Ha. (Mas). 

Eime. 
Crime. 
Vice. 
Bile. 



If. 

Eice. 
Bed. 
Ten. 



Vile. 

He laughs. 
He made. 
(/) laugh. 
They. 



Ehyme. 
Crime. 
Vice. 
Bile. 



Clme. 
lie. 

Vou» yites. 
"NovLS mime^. 
11^ dtnen^ 
Nou« rtme«. 



Summit. 
Isle. 

You saw. 
We did put. 
They dine. 
We laughed. 



The letter O-^ep. 108. 



Eoc. 
Dot. 

n sort. 

Qr. 

Poste. • 
Porte. 

Do«. 

08. 

So/. 

Sole. 
Eose. 
II ose.- 

nate. 

D6me. 
C6ne. 
Le v6tre. 
Le n6tre. 



Eock. 
Dowry. 



He goes out. 
Gold. 



Post-office* 
Door. 



Bstck. 
Bone. 
Simpletpn. 



Sole. 

Eose, pink. 
Ho dares. 



He takes off. 
Dome. 
Cone. 
Yours. . 
Ours. 



n dine h, midi. 

n Q8t iovt gro«. 

n a tor/. 

Oil e^ votre brosse 1 

n vi/ vo* roses. 

Qui a le mors &t la bride ? 

Oil la pie fit-elle son nici ? 

Elle li/ trqp vite. 
Votre hdte ost tr^ndrdle. 
n a eu sio; pria;. 
Votre robe est-elle rose ? 
Votre fi/s Q8t pis. 



He dines at twelve o'clock. 

He is very stout. 

He is wrong. 

Where is your brush 1 

He saw your roses. 

Who has the bit and the bridle? 

Where has the magpie made 

her nest ? 
She reads too fast. 
Your host is very droll. 
He has had six prizes. 
Is your dress pink ? 
Your son \a \?Qtafe, - 



72 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 



Tke rowel U—ieep, 110. 



Bu. 

Plu. 

Plu. 

Su. 

Cru. 

Vu. 

Lu. 



Drunk. 

Eained. 

Pleased. 

Known. 

Believed. 

Seen. 

Bead. 



Sur. 

Due. 

Muse. 

LutA. 

Siir. 


Upon. 

Duke. 

Musk. 

Lute. 

Sure. 


Eue. 
Vue 
Grue. 


Street. 

View. 

Crane, 


Fliite. 
Barnes, 


Tlute. 
Were (you). 
Drank (we). 


Que. 
Qui 


That, what. 
Who. 



Gu6. 
GuL 



Ford. 
Misletoe. 



A^tu le muse 1 

J'ai vu le due. 

Oil e^^ votre lutA 1 

n est pre« de la cage. 

n a plu ce soir. 

Le lynx a de bons yeua;. 

Le paysan a une mule. 
Qui lui a plu ? 
J'ai lu sio; page«. 
Le due a une fliite. 
Oil est le thym ? 
Qui vous a vu 1 



The vmrel Y—seep. 112. 



Yena:. 
Ya^ht, 


Eyes. 
Yacht. 


Jury. 

Lynx. 

Thym. 


Jury. 

Lynx. 

Thyme. 


Payez. 
Paysan. 


Pay. 

Countryman 



EoyaL RoyaL 



Vowels followed by a consort' 
ant with e mute — see p, 112, 



Cage. 
Page. 
Sr^ne, 


Cage. 
Page. 
Scene. 


P6re. 


Father, 


Pipe. 
Vice. 


Pipe. 
Vice. 


Ode. 


Ode. 


Eose. 


Eose. 


Plume. 


Feather. 


Mule. 


Mule. 


Lyre. 


Lyre. 



Hast thou the musk ? 
I have seen the duke. 
Where is your lute 1 
It is. near the cage. 
It has rained this evening. 
The lynx has good eyes. 



The countryman has a mulo. 
Who has pleased him ? 
I have read six pages. 
The duke has a flute. 
Where is the thyme 1 
Who has seen you 1 



LITTLE WORDS FOB BEGINNERS. 



73 



Hau^. 
Beau. 
Peau. 

Autre. 
Haute, 
Baume. 

Ou. 

Oh. 
Sou: 
Doua?. 
Bouf. 

Tour. 
Bouc. 

Moue. 
Roue. 
Boue. 

Coude. 
Rouge. 
Bourse. 
Soupe. 



The Dipthongft — see 

False. 
High. 
Fine. 
Skin. 



Other. 

High. 

Balm. 



Or. 

Where. 
Halfpenny. 
Sweet. 
End. 



Tower. 
He-goat. 



Grimace. 

WheeL 

Mud. 



Elbow. 
Red. 
Purse. 
Soup. 



j[)p. 114 and 

Loi 
RoL 
MoL 
Bloi^. 
Je boi«. 



Droi^. - 

Voids, 

Croia?. 

Tois, 

Joie. 

Oie. 

II a fui. 
II a nui. 

II cui^. 
II fui^. 
I^ui^. 
Frui^. 
Brui^. 

OuL 

Oui. 
Loui^. 



116. 

Law, 
King. 
Me. 
Blois. 
I drink. 



Right. 

Weight. 

Cross. 

Peas. 

Joy. 

Goose. 



He has fled. 
He has injured. 



He cooks. 
He flies. 
Night, 
Fruit. • 
I^oise. 



Yes. 

Heard. 

Louis. 



JjOS jours son^ courfe. 
II le voi^ troi* foi» par mois. 
Fait-il chauc? ou jfroie? 1 
"Les oies aont dans la cour. 
Y a-t-il de Teau chaude ? 
Cette bourse est pour vou5. 

Ce pauvre roi est sourr/. 
II joue sou* le saule. 
Elle a une douce voia;. 
Cette sauce est de mon goii/. 
Oh. est le boi« 1 
Elle a un beau cou. 



The days are short. 

He sees him three times a month. 

Is it warm or cold ? 

The geese are in the yard. 

Is there any warm water ? 

This purse is for you. 

This poor king is deaf. 
He plays under the willow tree. 
She has a sweet voice. 
This sauce is to my taste. 
Where is the wood 1 
She has a bea\v.t\ixiVTifc^. 



74 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 



Nasal Sounds — see pp. 118 and 120. 



Un banc. • 
Une den^. 
Un plan. 
Un camp. 
Le temps. 

Un chamjp. 
II men^. 

II ren^. 
n est lent 
Grand. 

Un nain. 
Lethym. 
Le Rhin. 
Un daim. 
II e^^vain. 
Le train. 

Le plomj. 
Prompt. 
Rondf. 
Le fron^. 
Le son. 



A bench. 
A tooth.' 
A plan. 
A camp. 
The weather. 



A field. 
He tells false- 
hoods. 
He renders. 
He is slow. 
TalL 



A dwarf. 
The thyme. 
The Rhine. 
A deer. 
He is vain. 
The train. 



The lead. 

Prompt. 

Round. 

The forehead. 

The sound. 



Jean a cen^ trmts. 
H est dans le coin. 
Le pain est sain, 
n est san^ gants. 
Son jonc est long. 
II a vin^Tt an^. 

II vient k jeun. 

Ce vin blanc est bon. 

Donne^ du foin k T^ne. 

Ce lin est fin. 

II a soin de son bien. 

lis von^ sur le pon^. 

II a faun. 



Un. 
Brun. 
A jeun. 
Les Hun^. 



One, a. 
Brown. 
Fasting. 
The Huns. 



lis dinent. They dine. 
EUe^ dansent. They dance. 
Us soupew^. They sup. 
Elle5 chantew^. They sing. 



Rien (ne). 
Le lien. 
II tient. 
n vien^. 
Le mien. 
Le sien. 

• 

Un poin^. 
Le soin. 
Le poin^. 
n join^. 
Moiiw, 
Loin. 



^N'othing. 
The tie. 
He holds. 
He conies. 
Mine. 
His. 



A point. 
The care. 
The fist. 
He joins. 
Less. 
Far. 



John has a hundred francs. 
He is in the comer. 
The bread is wholesome. 
He is without gloves. 
His cane (reed) is long. 
He is twenty. 

He comes fasting. 

This white wine is good. 

Give the donkey some hay. 

This flax is fine. 

He takes care of his property. 

They go on the bridge. 

He is hungry. 



LITTLE WORDS ^R BEGINNERS. 75 

The t OF et, andy is never sounded on the next word. 

The last consonant of a word is generally to be sonnded on 
tlie next word when beginning with a vowel or h mute. Many 
acquire the habit of always pronouncing the last consonant 
on the next word, among other instances, the t in the con- 
junction etf which is a gross and disagreeable mistake, see 
page 128. In order that the pupil may not acquire that 
habit, or should correct it, if it already exists, the following 
sentences should be read often with the master : — 

n vit un chat et un rat. He saw a cat and a rat. 

n va & Blois et k Spa. He goes to Elois and to Spa. 

Elle a un chSle et une roba She has a shawl and a dress. 
II est affable et indulgent. He is affable and indulgent. 
Qui a un mors et une bride ? Who has a bit and a bridle 1 
II a un franc et un centime. He has a franc and a centime. 
Elle a une bourse et une bague. She has a purse and a ring. 
Jean a une cl6 et un de. John has a key and a thimble. 

II a uhe p^che et une poire. He has a peach and a pear. 
II va au pare et au bois. He goes to the park and to the 

wood. 
II est ^nc et actif. He is frank and active. 

EUe va en France et en Prusse. She goes to France and Prussia. 
II parle k vous et k moi He speaks to you and to me. 

On the last Comonard of a Noun^—see Union of Words^ 

pp. 126, 128. 

A mistake of frequent occurrence is that of carrying the last 
consoniant of a noun subject on to the foU owing verb ; this 
must never be done, as the last consonant of a noun can only 
be sounded on its adjective, and that not always. 

Jean a ^t^ k Home. John has been to Rome. 

Get enfant est tr^s-bon. This child is very good. 

Mon cousin est k Paris. My cousin is at Paris. 

Cette nation est grande. This nation is great. 

Son habit est neuf. His coat is new. 

Ce plan est admirable. This plan is admirable. 

Cette for^t est longue. That forest is long. 

Le diner est prSt. The dinner is ready. 



76 



A VOCABULARY OF EASY AND USEFUL FRENCH 
WORDS AND SENTENCES. 



Oui. 


Ves. 


Avez-vous Have you 


Non. 


No. 


Une rose ? 


A rose? 


A. 


To. 


Unlis? 


A lily ? 


Oil. 


Where. 


Une nappe ? A table-cloth 1 


TA. 


There. 


Un arbre ? 


A tree? 


Guest 


Where is 


Le nez. 


The nose. 


Le pain 1 


The bread ? 


La joue. 


The cheek. 


Lesell 


The salt? 


Le bras. 


The arm. 


Lebceufi 


The beef 1 


La main. 


The hand. 


Le veau? 


The veal? 


Le doigt. 


The finger. 


Guest 


Where is 


Le pied. 


The foot. 


Led6? 


The thimble ? 


Le cou. 


The neck. 


TacI^I 


The key? 


La t^te. 


The head. 


Le chat ) 


The cat ? 


Les yeux. 


The eyes. 


Le coq? 


The cock ? 


Les dents. 


The teeth. 



Gil sont Where are 

Les plats ? The dishes ? 

Leslits? The beds? 

Les has ? The stockings ? 

Les pois? The peas? 

A-t-il Has he 

Un verre ? A glass ? 

Un arc ? A bow ? 

Uneballe? A ball? 

Un prix ? A prize ? 



Une cuiller. A spoon. 
Une tasse. A cup. 
Un couteau. A knife. 
Uneassiette. A plate. 
Un plat. A dish. 



Parlez. 

Dansez. 

Courez. 

Mangez. 

Buvez. 



Speak. 

Dance. 

Run. 

Eat. 

Drink. 



EAST ANP.^USEFUL FRENCH WORDS AND SENTENCES. 



77 



AUez. 

Venez. 

Sortez. 

Donnez. 

Montre2. 



Go. 
Come. 
Go out. 
Give.' 
Show. 



Parlez h 
Monsieur. 



Speak to 
j Sir, gentleman, 
t Mr. 

Madame. Madam. 

Mademoiselle, Miss. 

Get homme. This man. 



Voici 


Here is 


Son pcre. 


His father. 


Sa mere. 


His mother,' 


Son cousin. 


His cousin. 


Sa con sine. 


His cousin. 


^ J*aime 


I love 


Papa. 


Papa. 


Maman. 


Mamma. 


Ma sceur. 


My sister. 


Mon fr^re. 


My Wother. 


Du papier. 


Some paper. 


Vert. 


Green. 


Blanc. 


White. 


Gris. 


Gray. 


I^oir. 


Black. 


Sur. 


On. 


Dans. 


In. 


Avec. 


With. 


Pres de. 


Near to. 


Sous. 


Under. 


Ou. 


Or. 


Qni. 


Who. 


Pour. 


For. 


Ici. 


Here. 


Dans. 


In. 



Avez-vous 


Have you 


Une table 1 


A table ? 


Une chaise? 


A chair ? 


Un sofa ? 


A sofa 1 


Un jardin 1 


A garden? 


J'ai 


I have 


Un chat. 


A cat. 


Un chien. 


A- dog. 


Une poup^e. 


A doU. 


Une cage. 


A cage. 


Fermez 


^ Shut 


La porte. 


Tho door. 


Tia fen^tre. 


The window. 


Le tiroir. 


The drawer. 


Le livre. 


The book. 


Ouvrez 


Open 


Cette hoite. 


This box. 


Cette malle. 


This tmnk. 


L*armoire. 


•The closet. 


Le buffet. 


The sideboard 


Ha 


He has 


De la crfeme. 


Some cream. 


Du kit. 


Some milk. 


Du beurre. 


Some butter. 


Du fromage. 


Some cheese. 


Donnez-moi Give me 


Du th^. 


Some tea. 


Du vin. 


Some wine. 


Du caf6. 


Some coffee. 


Du pain. 


Some bread. 



Apportez Bring 

De la viande. Some meat. 

De la salade. Some salad. 

De Teau. Some water. 

Des ceufe. ^wo^ft ^%^' 

'a 



78 



FRENCH PBQNUNOUTION SIMPLIFIED. 



Voulez-vous 
Des noix ? 
Des poires 1 
Du raisin) 
Des fraises ? 

Donnez-lui 
Du Sucre. 
Du gateau. ' 
De la tarte. 
Des oranges. 

Pretez-moi 
Ce chlQe. 
Cette bague. 
Cette plume. 
Ces rubans. 



Will you have 
Some nuts ? 
Some pears ? 
Some grapes ? 
Some strawberries ? 

Give him 
Some sugar. 
Some cake. 
Some tart. 
Some oranges. 

Lend me 
This shawL 
This ring. 
This pen. 
These ribbons. 



J'ai faim. 
Elle a soif. 
II a ^id. 
Elle a raison. 
II a tort. 

Voule^vous 
Delabi^re? 
Du chocolat ? 
De la sauce 1 
DeTeaul 

Avez-vous 6t6 
En France I 
A Paris? 
En Italic ? 
Aujardin? - 

Parlez-vous 
Fran^aisl 
Anglais) 
Italien? 
Allemand? 



I am hungry. 
She is thirsty. 
He is cold. 
She is right. 
He is wrong. 

Will you have 
Some beer) 
Some chocolate ) 
Some sauce ) 
Some water ) 

Have you been 
In France ) 
to Paris 1 
In Italy ) 
To the garden ? 

Do you speak 
French ) 
English? 
Italian? 
German? 



EASY AND USEFUL FRENCH WORDS AND SENTENCES. 



79 



Avez-vous Have you 

Le ch^e et le manteau ? The shawl and the cloak 1 

Une ombrelle et un parapluie ? A parasol and an umbrella ? 
Une belle maison 1 A beautiful house ? 

Un beau cheval 1 A fine horse ? 



Dansez-vous ? 
Chantez-vous ? 
Lisez-votis ? 
Jouez-vous ? 
Ecrivez-vous ? 

Aimez-vous 
Leprintempsi 

r^t^ ? 

L'automne ? 
rhiver? 



Do you dance I 
Do you sing ? 
Do you read ? 
Do you play 3 
Do you write I 

Do you like 
The spring ? 
The summer 1 
The autumn ? 
The winter ? 



Quelle heure eslrill 

II est midi. 

II est tard. 

II est minuit. 

n est deux heures. 



What o'clock is it 1 

It is twelve o'clock (noon). 

It is late. 

It is midnight 

It is two o'clock. 



II fait chaud. 
II fait froid, 
II fait beau. 
II pleut. 
II g^le. 

Savez-vous 
Votre le9on ] 
Le fran9ais 1 
Mon nom 1 
Hon adresse 1 

Mettez 
Vos souliers. 
Vos gants. 
Votre chapeau. 
Votre habit. 



It is warm. 
It is cold. 
It is fine. 
It rains. 
It freezes. 

Do you know 
Your lesson ? 
French ? 
My name ? 
My address 1 

Put on 
Your shoes. 
Your gloves. 
Your hat. 
Your coat. 



80 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 



Connaissez-vous 
Cette (lame ? 
Ce monsieur ? 
Mon oncle I 
Ma tante 1 

J'irai k Paris. 
Lundi prochain. 
La semaine procbaine. 
Le mois prochain. 
L'aimde prochaine. 

J*ai ^te au concert 
Mardi dernier. 
Mercredi dernier.. 
Jeudi dernier. 
Vendredi dernier. ■ 

J'ai 6t6 i r^glise 
Hier. 

Avant-Jiier. 
Saraedi dernier. . 
Dimanche dernier. 

Voici 
La r^gle et le crayon. 
L'encrier et la plume. . 
Du papier et une enveloppe. 
Un canif et de Tencre. 

Eegardez 
Ce petit gargon. 
Cette petite fille. 
Ces musiciens. 
Ces jolies fleurs. 

I^ous avons M 
Au th64tre. 
Au concert. 
A la campagne. 
Au baL 



Do you know 
This lady 1 
This gentleman ? 
My uncle 1 
My aunt 1 

I shall go to Paris 
Next Monday. 
Next week. 
Next month. 
Next year. 

I went to the concert 
Last Tuesday. . 
Last Wednesday. 
Last Thursday. 
Last Friday. 

I went to church 
Yesterday. 

The day before yesterday. 
Last Saturday, 
Last Sunday^ 

Here are 
The ruler and the pencil. 
The inkstand and the pen^ 
Some paper and an envelope. 
A pen-knife and some ink. 

Look at 
This little boy. 
This little girl. 
These musicians. 
These pretty flowers. 

We have been 
To the theatre. 
To the concert. 
In the country. . 
To the ball 



EASY AND USEFUL FRENCH WORDS AND SENTENCES. 



81 



Que cherchez-vous 1 
Que dites-vous 1 
Que faites-vous 1 
Qu*aYez-vous perdu ] 
Qu'avez-vous trouviS 1 

II d^jeiine. 
Elle dine. 
Nous soupons. 
Buvez-vous ] 
Mangent-ils 1 

J'ai mal aux dents. 
II a mal k la t^tei 
Elle a mal a la gorge. 
Jean a mal au doigt. 
Marie a mal aux yeux. 



What are you looking for ? 
What do you say 1 
What are you doing 1 
What have you lost ] 
What have you found ? 

He breakfasts. 

She dines. 

We are having supper. 

Do you drink ] 

Do they eat ? 

I have the toothache. 
He has the headache. 
She has a sore throat. 
John has a bad finger. 
Mary has sore eyes. 



J'ai achet^ I have bought 

XJn panier et des pommes. A basket und some apples. 
XJn verre et une bouteille. A glass and a bottle. 
Une serviette etunefourchette. A napkin and a fork. 
Une cuiller et un couteau. A spoon and a knife. 



II a vendu 
Une harpe et un violon. 
Un pigeon et une poule. 
Un canard et une oie. 
Un marteau et des clous. 

Avez-vous 
Une cravate et un gilet ? 
Un mouchoir de poche 1 
Une petite ^pingle ] 
Une montre et une chaine 1 



6tez 



Vos bottines. 
Vos bas. 
Vos bagues. 
Votre tablier. 



He has sold 
A harp and a violin. 
A pigeon and a hen. 
A duck and a goosed 
A hammer and some nails. 

Have you 
A cravat and a waistcoat 1 
A pocket-handkerchief? 
A small pin ) 
A watch and chain ? 

Take off 
Your boots. 
Your stockings. 
Your rings. 
Yo\u ai^ioiu 



82 FRENCH FBONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 



FRENCH READING AND TRANSLATION. 

At page 87 will be found the same anecdotes, with a literal 
and interlineary translation, so that the pupil is at first spared 
the trouble of looking for every word in the dictionary, and 
the peculiar construction of the language may be more readily 
perceived and understood. 

LE SONGE DES TBOIS SOUBIS. 

Un prince superstitieux vit une fois en songe trois souris, 
une grasse, une maigre, et la demifere aveugle. Ce prince 
consulta une Sibylle, qui lui dit : " La souris grasse, c'est 
votre ministre; la souris maigre, c'est votre peuple; et la 
souris aveugle, c'est votre portrait, mon prince." 

When there are in a class advanced pupils, the anecdotes 
may be used also as a means of conversation, like the follow- 
ing model, the questions being asked in French, and the 
answers given in French — the anecdote should then be re- 
lated by one or more of the class. 

Qu'est-ce qu'un prince superstitieux vit en songe 1 Trois 
souris. — Quel ^tait T^tat de ces trois souris? L'une ^tait 
grasse, une autre maigre et la demifere aveugle. — Qui ce 
prince consulta-t-il sur ce reve ? H consulta une sybille. — 
Que lui dit la sybille k propos de la souris grasse ? £lle lui 
dit que la souris grasse repr^sentait son ministre. — Qui, selon 
la sybille, repr^sentait la souris maigre 1 Le peuple. — Et la 
souris aveugle, de qui 6tait-elle le portrait 1 La souris aveugle 
Siait le portrait du prince. 



FRENCH BEADING AND TRANSLATION. 83 



l'exp]£dient. 

I 

Une dame anglaise ayant pri^ le docteur Johnson de lui 
indiquer le moyen de conserver un tonneau d^excellente bifere 
dont elle faisait le plus grand cas, et d'emp^cher que ses gens 
n'y touchassent : " Le moyen est bien simple," lui repondit 
le docteur, " vous n'avez qu'k faire mettre h, c6t6 une piece de 
vin de Bourgogne." 



RjfePONSE HARDIB d'UN VIEIL OPFICIBR. 

M. de Yalbelle, qui etait vieux et cass^, demandait, avec 
beaucoup de vivacity, d'etre fsait lieutenant-G^n^raL "tTy 
penserai," dit Louis XIV. " Que votre Majesty se d^p^che," 
repartit ce brave officier, en dtant k demi sa peiruque : car 
Elle doit voir k mes cbeveux blancs que je n'ai pas le temps 
d'attendre." Malgr6 le caract^re du Prince, cette bardiesse 
ne lui d^plut pas, et elle fut suivie d*un prompt succfes. 



R^PONSB PIQUANTE. 

tJn Parisien, grand parleur, voulant plaisanter un homme, 
nouvellement arriv^ de province, cbercbait k lui faire quel- 
ques questions pour Tembarrasser, et se divertir k ses d^pens ; 
il lui demanda dans une compagnie : "Qu*est-ce qu'une 
obole, une faribole, et une parabole?" L'autre, sans se d6- 
concerter, repondit : " Une parabole est ce que vous n^enten- 
dez pas ; une faribole est ce que vous dites ; et une obole est 
ce que vous valez." 



84 jPRENCH PJaONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED, 



R^ONSB FLATTEUSB DB LOUIS XIV. 

Le grand Cond^ venait de gagner la bataille de Senef. 
A son retoirr il s'empressa dialler rendre ses devoirs k Louis 
XrV. Le Roi, sachant son arriv^e, alia Tattendre au haut de 
Tescalier. Le Prince de Cond^, qui souffrait de la goutte, 
avait de la peine k monter : " Que votre Majeste," dit-il. k 
Louis XIV., " veuille m'excuser sije la fais attendre.'* Le 
Roi lui repondit gracieusement : "Mon cousin, ne vous 
pressez pas : quand on est cliarg6 de lauriers comme vous 
r^tes, on ne'saurait marcher vite." * 

FLATTBRIE INGJ^IBUSK 

Le due de Marlborough, venait de gagner la bataille de 
Hochstedt; il avait remarque pendant Taction un soldat 
qu'il savait etre au nombre des prisonniers ; il le fit appeler, 
pour le complimenter sur son courage, et lui adresser quel- 
ques paroles de consolation. " Si votre maitre," ajouta-t-il, 
" avait beaucoup de soldats comme vous, il serait invincible." 
" Ce ne sont pas les soldats comme moi, qui lui manquent," 
repondit le prisonnier, " mais un g^n^ral comme vous." Get 
^loge adroit plut beaucoup k Marlborough, qui rendit aussit6t 
la liberty k ce brave soldat. 



GASCONS BT OASCONNADES. 



La signification propre dU mot Gascon est habitant de la 
Oascogne, ancienne province m^ridionale de France; au 
figur6 ce mot veut dire h^bleur, vantard. 



FRENCH RBADING AND TRANSLATION. 85 



MENACE D*UN GASCON. 



Un Gascon s'^tait pris de quer^lle avec nn de ses amis ; ils 
allaient en venir aiix mains, lorsque Tun des deux fit des ex- 
cuses. L'autre lui dit : " Tu as bien fait d'en agir ainsi, car 
j'allais te doimer un coup qui t'aurait lanc^ dans I'air k une 
hauteur si prodigieuse, que les mouches auraient eu le temps 
de te manger enti^rement avant que tu fusses retombe k 
terre.*' 

LE CARREAU CASS1& 

Un jeune enfant d'une ^cole chretienne avait, sans mau- 
vaise intention, cass6 Tun des carreaux de T^tude. On ne 
s'en etait pas aper9u, mais le pauvre enfant tremblait de peur 
chaque fois qu'on lui adressait la parole. 

Un dimanche, le cur6 de Tendroit vint prAsider le cat^ 
chisme, et inteiTOgea quelques-uhs des enfants, parmi lesquels 
se trouvait le malheureux coupable. Le cur6 lui dit : " Qui 
a fait le ciel et la terrel" Tout pr6occup6 de son carreau, 
renfemt r^pondit : " Monsieur, ce n*est pas moL" " Com- 
ment, ce n'est pas toil" "Eh bien, Monsieur, c'est moi; 
mais je ne le ferai plus." 

REFARTIB INOl^NIEUSE DE H. DE TALLEYRAND. 

Un g^n^ral, invito un jour k diner chez M. de Talley- 
rand, s'etant fait attendre trop longtemps, on se mit k table. 
11 arriva au milieu du premier service, et s'excusa de n'^tre 
pas venu plus t6t, en all^guant qu'il avait 6t6 retenu pres 
d'une heure par un PSkin. " Qu*est-ce qu'un Pekin?" lui 
demanda M. de Talleyrand. " Quoi, Monseigneur," reprit 
le g^^ral, ^'ne savez-vous pas que, nous autres militaires, 
nous avons coutume d'appeler PSkin tout ce qui n*est pas 
militaire?" "Ah, ah!" s*^cria Talleyrand, " c'est done 
comme nous qui avons coutume d'appeler militaire tout ce 
qui n*est pas civil." 



86 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 



LOUIS XI. BT L'aSTROLOGUE. 

Tin astrologue pr^dit la mort d*une dame que Lous XI. 
aimait beaucoup : elle mourut au temps marque. Le roi crut 
'que la pr^iction avait ^t^ la cause de la moit de cette dame. 
II fit venir Tastrologue avec rintention de le faire jeter par 
la fen^tre pour le punir. Celui-ci pr^vit ce qui Tattendait, 
et lorsque le roi lui demanda avec ironie et en faisant allusion 
k sa science, s'il savait quel sort lui ^tait r^serv^, il r^pondit : 
" Oui, Sire, car les astres m'ont appris depuis longtemps que 
je mourrai trois jours avant votre Majesty." Ce prince 
cr^dule et superstitieux le crut, et au lieu de faire p^rir 
Tastrologue ainsi qu'il en avait d*abord eu Fintention, il le 
renvoya combl6 de presents, et apr&s Tavoir engage k bien 
soigner sa sant6. 



UN DISOOURS IMPROVISE 

Sir Eichard Steele se faisait b&tir un chateau; il ne 
manqua pas d'y faire placer une chapelle, et il voulut qu'elle 
flit vaste. Uouvrage avan9ait lentement, parcequ*il ne 
payait pas ses ouvriers. Un jour il alia les voir; ils le 
men^rent dans la chapelle qu*ils venaient de finir. Sir 
Eichard ordonna k Tun d'eux de monter en chaire, et de 
parler, afin qu*on piit juger si Id salle <5tait sonore. 

L'ouvrier monte et demande ce qu'il doit dire, on sait bien 
qu'il n'est pas orateur. " Dis ce qui te viendra k Tesprit," 
lui repond Sir Eichard. Alors, d'un ton d'inspir^, Touvrier 
s'6crie : " H y a six mois, Sir Eichard, que nous n'avons vu 
de votre argent; quand vous plaira-t-il de nous payer 1" 
" Fort bien," dit Sir Eichard, " je t'ai tr^s-bien entendu, mais 
tu as mal choisi ton sujet." 



FRENCH BEADING AND TRANSLATION. 87 

LITERAL AND INTERLINEARY TRANSLATION. 

A more &ee translation is added when the literal transla- 
tion fails to show the meaning of the French. 

LE SONOE DES TROIS SOURIS. 
THE DSEAM OF THE THSEE MICE. 

Un prince superstitieux vit une fois en songe trois souris, 
A prince superstitious saw one time in dream three mice» 

line grasse, iine maigre, et la demifere aveugle. Ce prince 
one fat, one thin, and the last blind. That prince 

consnlta une SibyUe, qui lui dit : "La souris grasse, c'est 
consulted a Sibyl, who to-him said : ** The mouse fat, it is 

votre ministre ; la souris maigre, c'est votre peuple ; et la 
jour minister ; the mouse thin, it is your people ; and the 

souris aveugle, c*est votre portrait, mon prince, 
mouse blind,, it is your portrait, my prince* 

l'expiSdibnt. 

THE EXPEDIENT. 

line dame anglaise ayant pri^ le docteur Johnson de 
A lady English having begged the doctor Johnson of 

lui indiquer le moyen de conserver un tonneau 
to-her to-indicate the means of to-preserve a cask 

d'excellente bifere dont elle faisait le plus grand 
of excellent beer of-which she made the most great 

cas, et d'emp^cher que ses gens n*y touchassent: 
case,* and ofto-prevent that her servants (no^)to-it should-touch: 

"Le moyen est bien simple," lui r^pondit le docteur, 
"The way is very simple,'* to-her answered the doctor, 

*^vous n'avez (ne)qp!h. faire mettre h. c6t^t une pifece de 
**You have only toto>make to-put to side a cask of 

vin de Boui^ogne. 
wine of Burgundy. 

t 

♦ On which she set a great value. "^ "^1 ''^^^ 



88 FRENCH PRONOUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

RlfePONSE HA.RDIB d'UN VIEIL OFFICIER. 
ANSWER BOLD OF AN OLD OFFICEE. 

M. de Valbelle, qui ^tait vieux et cass^, demandait, 
M. de Valbelle, who was old and broken-down, was-asking 

avec beaucoup de vivacity, d'etre fSa.it Lieutenant-G^n^ral. 
with much of vivacity, of to-be made Lieutenant-General. 

" J*y penserai," dit Louis XIV. " Que votre Majesty 
"Ito-it will-think," said Louis XIV. "That your Majesty 

86 d^p^che," repartit ce brave officier, eh dtant' 

herself may-make-haste," replied this brave officer, in taking-off 

k demi sa perruque : " car Elle doit voir k mes cheveux 
at half his wig: "for slie must see to my hairs 

blancs que je n'. ai pas le temps d*attendre." Malgr^ 
white that I not have (not) the ^time of tb-wait." In-spite-of 

le caract^re du Prince, cette hardiesse iie lui d^plut 
tlie disposition of- the Prince j this boldness not to-him displeased 

pas, et elle iiit suivie d*un prompt succ^s. 
{not), and it wa^ followed of a quick success.. 

RiPONSE PIQUANTE. 
ANSWER PIQUANT. 

TJn Parisien, grand parleur, voulant plaisanter un homme 
A Parisian, ' great talker, wishing to-joke a man 

nouvellement arriv^ de province, cherchait k lui 
newly. arrived from province* was-seeking to to^him 

faire quelques questions pour Tembarrasser, et se 
to-make some questions for him to-embarrass, and himself 

divertir k ses d^pens ; il lui demanda dans une 
to-divert at his expense; he to-him asked in a 

compagnie : " Qu*est-ce qu'une obole, une 

company : " What is it that an obolus {farthing), a 

faribole, et une parabolel*' L'autre sans se 
trifle (»rf^ t^y), and a parable?" The other without himself 

d^concerter r^pondit : " Une parabole est ce que vous 
to-disconcert answered: "A parable is that which you 

n'entendez pas; une faribole est ce que vous dites; 
not understand (not) ; an idle-story is that which you say ; 

et une obole est ce que vous valez." 
and an obolus is that which you are- worth." 



PRBNCH READING AND TRANSLATION. 89 

RlfePONSE PLATTEUSE DE LOUIS XIV, 
AKSWES FLATTERINO of LOUIS XIV. 

Le grand Cond^ venait de gagner* la bataille de Senef. 
The great Coiid6 came of to-gain* the hattle of Senef. 

A son retour il s'empressa d*aller rendre ses 

At his return he himself hastened ofto-go to-render his 

devoirs h. Louis XIV. Le Eoi, sachant son amv^e, alia 
duties to Louis XIV. The king, knowing his arrival, went 

Tattendre an haut de V escalier. Le prince de 
him to-wait-fop at-the top of the staircase. The prince of 

Cond^, qui souffrait de la goutte, avait de la 
Cond6, who was-suffering of the gout, had of the (some) 

peine k monter: "Que votre Majesty," dit-il h. 
trouble to mount : " Tliat your Majesty," said he to 

Louis XIV., veuille m'excuser, si je la 

Louis XIV., may-be- willing me to-excuse, if I her (Aim) 

fais attendre."t Le Eoi lui repondit gracieusement : 
make to-wait."t The King to-him answered graciously : 

" Mon cousin, ne vous pressez pas : quand on est charg^ 
V My cousin, not you hurry {not) : when one is loaded 

de lauriers comme vous Tetes, on ne sauraitj 
of laurels as you it are, one not should-know (how)^ 

marcher vtte." 
to-walk fast." 

4 

• Had just gained. t If I keep you waiting. X Could not. 

FLATTERIE INGl^NIEUSE. 
FLATTERY INGENIOUS. 

Le Due de Marlborough venait de gagner la 
The Duke of Marlborough came of to-gain*. the 

bataille de Hochstedt, le treize Aoiitl704; il avait 
battle of Hochstedt, the thirteen August 1704 ; he had 

remarqu^ pendant Taction un soldat qu'il savait etre 
remarked during the action a soldier whom he knew to-be 

au sombre des prisonniers ; il le fit appeler, pour 
to-the number of-the prisoners ; he him made to*call,t for 

. ♦ Had lust, gained. + He sent fox \v\nv. 



90 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

le complimenter sur son courage, et lui adresser 
him to-compliment on his courage, and to-liim to-address 

quelques paroles de consolation, " Si votre maltre," 
a-few words of consolation. "If your master," 

^jouta-t-il, "avait beaucoup de soldats comme vous, il 
added he, " had many of soldiers like you, he 

serait invincible." " Ce ne sont pas les soldats 
would-be invincible.*' " It not are (not) the soldiers 

comme moi, qui lui manquent;" r^pondit le prisonnier, 
likh me, who to-him fail," replied the prisoner, 

" mais un general comme vous." Get floge adroit 
. "but a general like you.'* This praise clever 

plut beaucoup k Marlborougli, qui rendit aussit6t 
pleased much to Marlborough, who rendered immediately 

la liberty h. ce brave soldat. 
the liberty to this brave soldier. 



GASCONS BT GA8C0NNADBS. 
GASCONS AND GASCONADES. 

La signification propre du mot Gascon est habitant de 
The signification proper of-the word Gascon is inhabitant of 

la Gascogne, ancienne province m^ridionale de France; 
the Gascony, ancient province southern of France; 

au figur6 ce mot veut dire h^bleur, vantard. 
to-the figurative this word will say* bragger, boaster. 



MENACE D UN GASCON. 
THREAT OF A GASCON. 

Tin Gascon s*^tant pris de quereUe avec un de ses 
A Gascon himself being taken of quarrel with one of his 

amis, ils allaient en venir aux mains,t lorsque 
friends, they were-going of-it to-come to-the hands, when 

Tun des deux fit des excuses.^ L'autre 

the-one of-the two made of-the {some) excuses. The other 

lui dit : " Tu as bien fait d' en agir ainsi, car 
to-him said: "Thou hast well done of of-it to-act thus, for 

Means. f Come to blows. ;}: Apologized. 



* 



FRENCH READING AND TRANSLATION. 91 

j^allais te donner tin coup qui t'aurait lanc^ 
Iwas-going to-thee to-give a blow which thee would-have sent 

dans Tair h. une liauteur si prodigieuse, que les mouches 
in the air to a height so prodigious, that the flies 

auraient eu le temps de te manger entitlement avant 
would-haye had the time of thee to-eat entirely before 

que tu fusses retomb^ k terre." 
tiiat thou shouldst-be fallen- again to earth." 

LE OARREAU OABB± 

THE PANE-OF-GLASS BBOKEN. 

Un jeune enfant d*une ^cole chr^tienne avait, sans 
A young child of a school Christian had, without 

mauvaise intention, cass^ V un des carreaux de 
bad intention, broken the one of-the panes-of-glass of 

r6tude. On ne s*en ^tait pas aper^u, mais le 
the study. One not one-self of-it was (not) perceived, but the 

pauvre enfant tremblait de peur chaque fois qu'on 
poor child wad-trembling of fright each time that one 

lui adressait la parole, 
to-him addressed the word. 

Un dimanche, le cur^ de V endroit vint pr^sider 
One Sunday, tho vicar of the place came to-preside-at 

le cat^clusme, et interrogea quelques-uns des enfants, 
the catechism, and questioned some ones of-the children, 

parmi lesquels se trouvait le malheureux coupable. Le 
among which himself found the unfortunate culprit. The 

cur6 lui dit: — "Qui a fait le ciel et la terre 1" 
vicar to-him said : — " Who has made the heaven and the earth ? " 

Tout pr^occupe de son carreau, I'enfant r^pondit: 
All preoccupied of his pane-of-glass, the child replied : 

" Monsieur, ce n*est pas moL" " Comment, ce n'est pas 
"Sir, it not is (no/) I." "How, it not is (noO 

toi ] " " Eh bien. Monsieur, c*est moi; mais je ne le ferai 
then?" "Eh well. Sir, it is I; but I not it will-make 

plus."* 



more." 



I will not do it again. 



92 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 



REPARTIE INOl&NIEftJSE DE H. DE TALLEYRAND. 
SEPASTEE INGENIOUS OF MB DE TALLETSAND. 

Un g^n^ral, invite un jour h. dtner chez M. de 
A general, invited one day to dinner at M. de 

Talleyrand, s'^tant fait attendre trop longtemps, 
Talleyrand, himself being made to-wait* too long-time, 

on se mitk table. II arriva au milieu du premier 
one oneself put to table.f He arrived at-the middle • of-the first 

service, et s^excusa de n'^tre pas venu plus t6t, 

course, and himself excused of not to-be (no^) come more soon, 

en all^guant qu*il avait ^t^ retenu pr^s d'une lieure par 
in alleging that he had been detained near of an hour by 

un Pekin, " Qu'est-ce qu*un Pekin ]" lui demanda 
a Pekin, " What is it that a PekinV'X to-him asked 

M. de TaUeyrand. " Quoi, Monseigneur," repiit le g^n^ral, 
M. de Talleyrand. " What, my lord," replied the geniBral, 

" ne savez-vous pas que, nous autres militaires, nous avons 
*' not know you (no^) that, we others military, we have 

coutume d'appeler P6kln tout ce qui n'est pas militairel" 
custom of to-call Pekiii all that which not is (no^) military?'* 

" Ah ! all !" s'6cria Talleyrand, "c'est done comme nous 
" Ah I ah ! " himself cried Talleyrand, ** it is then like us 

qui avons coutume d^appeler militaire tout ce qui n'est 
who have custom of to-call military all that which not is 

J)a8 civiL 
(riot) civil. 

* Having kept the company waiting, 
t They sat down to table. 

X What is a Pekin t Pekin, a contemptuous expression, having nearly 
the meaning of a scoundrel ; but this has no proper equivalent in English. 



FRENCH READING AND TRANSLATION. 93 



LOUIS XI. ET L'aSTROLOGUE. 
LOUIS XI. AND THE ASTROLOOEB. 

Un astrologue prMit la mort d'une dame que Louis 
An astrologer predicted the death of a lady whom Louis 

XL aimait beaucoup ; elle mourut au temps marqu^. 
XI. was-loving much : she died at-the time marked. 

Le roi crut que la prediction avait 6t6 la cause 
The king helieved that the prediction had heen the cause 

de la mort de cette dame. II fit venir* I'astrologue 
of the death of this lady. He made to-come the astrologer 

avec Tintention de le faire jeter par la fenetre pour 
with the intention of him to-make to-throw by the window for 

le punir. Celui-ci pr^vit ce qui Tattendait, et 
him to-pnnish. This-here foresaw that which him awaited, and 

lorsque le roi lui demanda avec ironie et en faisant 
when the kingto-him asked with irony and in making 

allusion h. sa science, s*il savait quel sort lui etait 
allusion to his science, if he knew what fate to-him was 

r&erv^ il repondit : " Oui, Sire, car les astres m'ont 
reserved, he answered : " Yes, Sire, for the stars me have 

appris depuis longtemps que je mourrai trois jours avant 
taught since long-time that I shall die three days before 

votre Majesty." Ce prince crMule et superstitieux le 
your Majesty." This prince credulous and superstitious him 

crut, et au lieu de faire p^rir Tastrologue ainsi 
believed, and to-the stead of to-make perish the astrologer as 

qu'il en avait d'abord eu Tintention, il le renvoya 
that he of-it had of first had the intention, he him sent back 

comble de pr^ents, et aprfes* I'avoir engag^ k bien 
loaded of presents, and after him to-have engaged to well 

soigner sa sant4 
to-take-care-of his health. 

* He sent for. 



9i FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPUFIED. 

UN DISCOURS IMPROVISlfe. 
A SPEECH EX-TEMPOBE. 

Sir Eichard Steele se faisait Mtir un cMteau ; 

Sir Kichard Steele to-himself was-making to-build a castle; 

il ne manqua pas d'y faire placer une chapelle, et 
he not failed (not) of there to-make to-place a chapel, and 

il voulut qu'elle filt vaste. L'ouvrage avan9ait 

he would that she {it) should-be large. The work was-advancing 

lentement, parce qu'il ne payait pas ses ouvriers. 
slowly, because that he not was-paying (not) his workmen. 

Un jour il alia les voir; ils le menerent dans la 
One day he went them to-see; they him conducted in the 

chapelle, qu'ils venaient de finir. Sir Richard ordonna 
chapel, which they came* of to finish. Sir Richard ordered 

k Tun d'eux de monter en chaire, et de parler, afin 
to the one of them of to-mount in pulpit, and of to speak, in-order 

qu*on piit juger si la salle ^tait sonore. L'ouvrier 
that one might judge if the room was sonorous. The workman 

monte et demande ce qu'il doit dire : on sait bien 
mounts and asks that which he must say : one knows well 

qu*il n'est pas orateur. "Dis ce qui te viendra 
that he not is (not) orator. " Say that which to-thee will-come 

k Tesprit," lui r^pond Sir Eichard. Alois, d*un ton 
to the mind," to-him answers Sir Kichard. Then, of a tone 

d'inspir^, Touvrier s'^crie : " II y a six mois,t 
of inspired, the workman himself cries : " It there has six months. 

Sir Eichard, que nous n'avons vu de votre argent; 
Sir Richard, that we not have seen of your money; 

quand vous plaira-t-il de nous payer 1 " " Fort bien," dit 
when to-you will-please it of us to-pay?" "Very well," said 

Sir Eichard, " fort bien ; je t*ai trfes bien entendu, mais 
Sir Richard, *' very well ; I thee have very well heard, but 

tu as mal choisiton sujet." 
thou hast badly chosen thy subject." 

♦ Which they had just finished. f It is six months since. 



CARDINAL NUMBERS. 



95 



See for the proper pronnnciation of cinq, p. 148 ; six, p. 160 ; sept, p. 158 ; hait, 
p. 168; nenf, p. 186; dlx, p. 160; vingt; vingt et un, etc., p. 168. 



1, Un, wi., une, /. 

2, deux. 

3, tarois. 

4, quatre. 

5, cinq. 

6, six. 

7, sept. 

8, huit. 

9, neuf. 

10, dix. 

11, onze. 

12, dooze. 
18, treize. 

14, quatorze. 

15, quiiize. 

16, seize. 

17, dix-se^t. 

18, dix-huit. 

19, dix-nenf. 

20, vingt. 

21, vingt et un. 

22, • vingt-deux 

23, vingt-trois. 

24, vingt-quatie. 

25, vingt-cinq. 



26, vingt-six. 

27, vingt-sept. 

28, vingt-huit. 

29, vingt-neuf. 

30, trente. 

31, trente et un. 

32, trente-deux. 

40, quarante. 

41, quarante et un. 

42, quarante-deux. 

50, cinquante. 

51, cinquante et un. 

52, cinquante-deux. 
60, soixante. 

soixante et un. 
soixante-dix. 
soixante et onze. 
soixante-douze. 
soixante-treize. 

74, soixante-quatorze. 

75, soixante- quinze. 

76, soixante-seize. 

77, soixante-dix-sept. 

78, soixai)te-dix-huit. 

79, soixante-dix-neuf. 



61, 
70, 
71, 
72, 
73, 



80, quatre-vingts. 

81, quatre-vingt-un, 

82, quatre-vingt-deux. 

83, quatre-vingt-trois. 

84, quatre-vingt-quatre. 

85, quatre-vingt-cinq. 

86, quatre-vingt-six. 

87, quatre-vingt-sept. 

88, quatre-vingt-huit, 

89, quatre-vingt-neuf. 

90, quatre-vingt-dix. 

91, quatre-vingt-onze. 

92, quatre-vingt-douze, 

93, quatre-vingt-treize. 

94, quatre-vingt-quatorze. 
96, quatre-vingt-quinze. 

96, quatre-vingt-seize. 

97, quatre-vingt-dix-sept. 

98, quatre-vingt-dix-huit. 

99, quatre-vingt-dix-neuf. 

100, cent. 

200, deux cents. 
1,000 mille. 
2,000 deux mille. 
1,000,000, un million. 



CoMPASAHVB Tables of thb Fbsnch and English Coras. 

JBnglish Coins reduced to French Money. 

1 Farthing, about . 2^ centime& 
Halfpenny, 
Penny, 






i 



8 Pence, 
4 Pence, 
6 Pence, 

1 Shilling, 

2 Shillings, 
2s. 6cL, 

^6 Shillings, 

^ r 10 Shillings, 



„ 1 son or 5 
„ 2 sous or 10 

„ 6 sons or 31 
41 
62} 
franc 1*25 
2-50 
812J 
6-25 

. 12-50 



n 
n 



O \£l (1 Pound sterUng), 25 '0 . 



I 

it; 



je4, 
r£fi. 

£10, 

£20, 

£40, 

£100, 

£1,000, 

£4,000, 
£40,000, 



. 100-0 

. 1250 

. 250-0 

500-0 

1,0000 

2,500-0 

25,000-0 

100,000-0 
1,000,000-0 



»» 
»» 
11 

11 
11 
11 

11 
11 

11 

i» 
11 
11 

11 
11 
II 

11 
11 



French Coins reduced to English Money. 

1 Centime (100 part of a Franc), 
about } farthing. 



2 Do., 

5 Do., or 1 sou, . 

.0 Do., or 2 sous, , 

!0 Do., or 4 sous, 

>0 Do., or 10 sous, 

1 Franc, 

2 Do., 
5 Do., 

5 Do., 

LO Do., 



1 halfpenny. 

1 penny. 

2 pence* 

4 pence '/„ 
9 pence */i, 
Is. 7d. V« 
4s. Od. 

4s. Od. 
88. Od. 



Do. orlNapol^nl6s. Od. 



10 Do., 
BO. Do., 

25 Do., 

100 Do., 

200 Do., 

500 Do., 

,1,000 Do., 

2,000 Da, 



£1, 12s. Od. 

8, 4s. Od. 

1, Os. Od. 

4, Os. t)d. 

8, Os. Od. 

20, Os. Od. 
40,- Os. Od. 

80, Os. Od. 



The same decimal system, francs and centimes, is used in t^tLC^K "^^^gi^Kass.^ 
Switzerland, and Italy, where, by a recent treaty, t\ve motve^ ol ^\X»x ^asvssicrj N* 
a legal tender. 



96 



FRENCH: AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 



Comparative Table op the Weights and Measures or 

England and France. 



English Weights reduced 
to French Weights. 

Kilog. Grammes. 

Dram (dr.) 177 

Ounce (oz.) or 16 drams . ... 28*34 
Pound (Lh.) or 16 ounces . ... 453*59 
Quarter . . . . 12 700 
Hundredweight (cwt) or 112 lb. 50 800 
Ton .... 1,016 050 

English Apothecaries* Weight. 

1 grain is equal to 0'065 gram. 

1 scruple or 20 grains „ 1*3 
1 drachm or 3 scruples „ 3-9 
1 ounce or 8 drachms » 81*1 



French Weights reduced 
to English Weights. 



If 



»» 



»» 



Gramme. 

Decagramme, ) 

10 grammes, ) 

Hectogramme, ) 

100 grammes, ) 

600 grammes, . 

Kilogramme, ) 
1000 grammes, ) 
Decigramme, ) 

10th of a gramme, ) 
Centigramme, I 

100th of a gramme, { 



about 15| grains. 
. 6*43 dwt. 

8*527 oz avoir. 

3*216 oz. troy. 
( 1102 lb. avoir. 
I 1*340 lb. troy. 

2*205 lb. avoir. 

2*680 lb. troy. 

1*5432 grain. 
0*15483 grain. 



English Measures of Length reduced 
to French Measures. 



Mile, or 8 furlongs, 

or, 1760 yards. 
Furlong, or 220 yards, . 
Pole, or 5i yards, 
Fathom, or 2 yards, . 
Yard, or 8 feet, . 
Foot, or 12 inches, 
Inch, or 3 barleycorns, 



Mdtre)*. MillU 

. 1,609*314 

. 1,609*314 

201-164 

6*030 

1*828 

0*914 

0'304 

0*251 



French Measures of Length reduced 
to English Measures. 

Miriam^tre, 10,000 metres, 6 miles, 2188 
Kilometre, 100 mfetres, . 1093 yards. 
D^cam^tre, or 100 metres, 82Va '«et. 
M^tre, or 1000 millimetres, 8 feet 8 in. 

and {. 
6 kilometres are equal to 3 miles, } . 
1 liene, or 4 kilometres, are equal to 2i 
miles. 



English Measures of Capacity reduced 
to French Measures, 



Hogshead of 68 gals. (Wine m.) 
Hogshead of 54 gals. (Beer m.) 
Gallon of 4 quarts 
Quart of 2 pints 
Pint of 4 gills. 





e S 

as 


229 


94 


252 


18 


4 


56 


1 


14 





57 



French Measures of Capacity reduced 

to English Measures. 

ObIi. qts. gills. 

Hectolitre, or 100 litres . 22 
Decalitre, or 10 do. . 3 
Litre, or 100 centilitres, ") ^ 

or 1 1 English pint, . j 
Decilitre, or the 10th of a litre 
Centilitre, or the 100th part 
of a litre, 



"}•> 



1 






2Vi. 



English Square or Superficial Measures 
reduced to French Measures. 



French Square or Superficial Measures 
reduced to English Measures, 



Acre, or 4 rods 
Rod, or 40 poles 
Pole 



Ares. CentiarM. Acres. 

40 49%o Hectare, or 100 ares . 2 

10 12 Are, or 100 centiares 

25'/t0 Centiare, or mitre carrt, 



rodsw 


poles. 


1 


85i 





4 


6 


0V„ 



97 



A LIST, 

CONTAINING MOST OF THE FRENCH WORDS OF THE EXERCISF^ PART 
THAT ARE NOT SIMILAR TO THE ENGLISH. 



These words are to be committed to memory, and referred to, if necessary, 
when translating the Anecdotes, and preparing the Exercises. 



A, ?uu. 

A, ot, to, in, 

Ai, (7) have. 

A la, /, to (Ae, at the^ in tfie, 

A 1\ to the, at the, in the. 

Assez, enough. 

An, *.ifK,tothe,atthe, in the. 

Aussi, a7<o, <u. 

Aux, pi., to Vie, at the, in 

the. 
Avant, before. 
Avec, wWi. 

B. 
Beancoup, mtkh, very 

much. 
^ien, foeU, very much, 

C. 
Ce, m., this or that. 
Ce, or C, it, that, he, she, 

they. 
Ced, this. 
Cela, that. 
Celle,/, this, that. 
Celle-ci, this one. 
Celle-lk. tliat one. 
Celles, these, those, they. 
CeUes-lk, these ones, those 

ones. 
Celui, m., this, he, or 

him. 
Celui-ci, this one. , 
Celai-U^ t?iat one. 
Ces, tJiese, those. 
Cet, m., this or that. 
Cette,/., this or that. 
Ceux, m., thtse, those. 
Cenx-ci, then ones, those 

ones. 
Cenx-lk, these ones, those 

ones. 
Combien, how much, how 

many. 
Comme, as. 
Comment, how. 

D. 
Dans, in. 
De, of, from. 
De r, of the, some. 
De la, of the, some. 
Dea, pL, of the, some. 
D^s, cu soon as, from. 
Dn, m. s., of the, some. 



Elle, »A«, her. 

Elles,/, they, thenv. 

En, in, of it, qf them^ 

some, any, thence. 
Est, is. 
Et, and. 
Etes, (you) are. 

F. 

Fort, vtry. 

Fort bleu, very weU. 

1. 
Ici, here. 
n, he, it. 
Ha, m., fA^. 
11 y a, tAere is, there are. 

J. 

Jamais, (vrith ne before 

the verb) never. 
Je, J\ I. 

L. 
La, the, A«r, tt, 
Lk, f Aere. 
La leur, theirs. 
Laquelle, /, which. 
Le, m., the, him, it, so. 
Le leur, theirs. 
Lequel, m., whi h. 
Lea, the, them. 
Les leurs, theirs 
Lesquels, m. p., which. 
Lesquelles, /. p., which. 
Leur, their, to them. 
Leurs, their. 
Lui, him, to him, to her. 

M. 

Ma, / »., my. 
Mais, hut. 
Mes, pi., my. 
Mieux, better. 
Mon, m. s., my. 
Moina, less. 

Moins (le, la, or les), the 
least. 

N. 
Nos, pi., our. 
Notre, *., our. 
Nfitre (le, la), o«r<. 
Ndtres (les), ours. 
Nous, tre, u«. 
Ne — pas, no, noL 
Non, no. 
Ni, netYAer. 



0. 
On, one, people, they. 
Ont, (they) have. 
Ou, or, etYAer. 
Oh, where. 

P. 
Plus, more. 
Plus (le, la, or les), tftd 

most. 
Pour, /or, t» order to. 
Pourquoi, why. 
Par, by. 

Quand, trAen. 

Que, that which, whom, 

what, than. 
Quel, which, what. 
Qui, t«Ao, whom, t?Mt 

R. 
Rien (n« before the verb), 

nothing. 

S. 
Sa, his, her, its. 
Sans, without. 
Se, himself, herujf, itself, 

themselves. 
Ses, p/.. Am, Aer, its. 
Si,</: 

Sll, </'A«, <f «. 
S'ils, m., <^<A«y. 
Sommes, (we) are. 
Son, m. »., A«*, A«r, it*. 
Sont, (they) ar«; 
Sous, under. 
Suis, (I) am. 
Sur, on, upon. 

T. 
Trfes, very. 
Trfes-bien, very well 

U. 
Un, m., a, an, owe. 
Une, /., a, an, one. 

V. 
Voici, Jiere is, here are. 
Voilk, <Aere is, there are. 
Votre, *., yottr. 
Vos, pi., your. 
V6tre (la, le), yours. 
Vdtres (les), yours. 
Vous, you. 

T. 
T, there., to <t^ \fy \^vwa^ 
in ii^ in th«nv. 



98 FRENCH PRONUNOIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

LESSON 1.— The Vowels. 

L There are in the French language six vowels, — A, e, i, o, u, t, 
— ^whose alphabetic names or sounds have been given, p. 67. The 
student must bear in mind that, besides these names, the vowels are 
pronounced long, short, acute, grave, &a, according to their place in 
the words ; hence a difficulty, which the following lessons are 
designed to assist in lessening. 

2. In reading the following lessons on the pronunciation of the 
vowels and diphthongs, the student must remember that there is not 
in the English language any vowel sound that represents the eocact 
sound of any French voweL These lessons must therefore be con- 
sidered merely as giving directions to ascertain if the vowel is pro- 
nounced shorty acute, grave, or long. They will be found useful after 
hearing the pronunciation from the teacher, who is the only safe 
guide, and will certainly be of great assistance to those who cannot 
have the instruction of a French master ; but vocal teaching is the 
only means of learning properly the various sounds of each voweL 

LESSON 2. — The letter A. 

8. The letter A is generally pronounced short and acute, very 
nearly as a in the English words cat, tap, in the beginning, at the 
end, and in the middle of words, — also when followed by hie, a 
double consonant, or c, I, p, t, in the same syllable. 

Papa. — II dansa. — Canada. — Charitable. 
Harpe ; harangue ; harmcnie ; il alia, he went. 
Lac ; fatal ; cap. cape ; rat ; chat, cat. 

4. By exception, A is grave in the following words ; — 

Acre, sour; 4pre, greedy, rugged; and derivatives. 

Miracle ; fable ; sable, sand. 

Lacer; gagner, to gain; climat; classe. 

French and English Similarities. 

5. Most words ending in a^e, ade, al, and ahle are alike in both 
languages. 

La face ; la grimace ; la race. — La salade ; la ballade ; I'arcade. 
L'animal ; le g^ni^ral ; royaL — La fable ; affable ; profitable. 



FBGNCH AND EXQLISH SIMILARITIES. 



99 



LESSON 1— The Vowels. 

For Grammatical Rules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons in 
" French Language Simplified," pp. 36 and 38. 

The, — Le, m. s. ; La, f. s. ; L*, s., before a vowel; Les, plural. 



1, 2. Alfred a le piano. 
Le gdn^ral est brave. 
Ckua a le caf^. 
L'amiral est k Paris. 
Sophie a visits Tami d*!6lise. 
Qui a les roses ? 
Auguste a une fliite. 
tTai vu un yacht k Neuilly. 



Alfred has the piano. 

The general is brave. 

Clara has the coffee. 

The admiral is at Paris. 

Sophia has visited Eliza's friend. 

Who has the roses ? 

Augustus has a flute. 

I have seen a yacht at Neuilly. 



Besides the present rules on the Pronunciation the student may 
(especially those who are obliged to learn French without the aid of 
a master) derive great advantage from studying in conjunction with 
them " L. N*8 French Pronunciation cofiveyea by English Words^ 
in which all the peculiarities of each of the letters are exemplified 
by English words that correspond in sound to the French words 
illustrated. This pronunciation conveyed by English words cannot 
supersede the lessons of the master, but they can assist his viva 
voce tuition, as they will suggest the pronunciation of the words, 
when alone. 

LESSON 2. — The letter A exemplified. 
Of ihe, — ^Du, m. s. ; De la, f. s. ; De 1', before a vowel ; Des, plural. 



3. n a la balle d' Alfred. 
Qui a ^t^ k Farsenal ? 

Le g^n^ral a ^t^ k TarsenaL 

II a admir^ le lac. 

II a la cravate de papa. 

Je prdfibre la harpe au piano. 

Charles est pr^s du canaL 

A-t-il ^t^ k Paris 1 

Qui, madame, il y a ^t^. 

4. n a gagn^ un franc. 
Elle a admir^ ce climat. 

5. Le g^n^ral aime la salade. 
II pr6f&re cette fable. 

Clara est charitable. 
Cet animal est terrible. 



He has Alfred's ball. 

Who has been to the arsenal ? 

The general has been to the artsenal 

He has admired the lake. 

He has papa's cravat. 

I prefer the harp to the piano. 

Charles is near the canaL 

Has he been to Paris ? 

Yes, madam, he has. 

He has gained a franc. 

She has admired this climate. 

The general likes salad. 
He prefers this fable. 
Clara is charitable. 
This ttimnfii S& \aty^^. 



100 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

LESSON 3. — On the vowel A (continued), 

1. The letter A has an open and broad sound, nearly like a in 
father, particularly in words ending with dbre, ahrer, arhre, cUre, 
atrer, adre^ adr&r, a/vre, amer ; — in words having as in the singular ; 
—when followed by r; — in words where the a is followed by Hon or 
sion ; — Escadre, squadron ; Arbre, tree ; Lilas, a lila>c. Art ; part. 
Nation; station. Occasion. 

2. The circumflex accent over the a renders it grave and broad. 

L'4ge; mMe; ch41e; c4ble; m&t, moM, 

3. As an exception, pronounce short and acute the d with a 
circumflex accent of the first and second person plural of the past 
definite, and of the third person of the imperfect of the subjimctive. 

Nous visitAmes, we visited; vous visit4tes ; qu'il visit&t. 

4. In the following words A is silent : — 

La Sa6ne, a river in France; Aoiit, August, 

LESSON 4. — The letter A {continued). 

The following extracts from Moli^re*s "Bourgeois Gentilhomme,'* 
on the vowels, are given as a general direction, and also to show 
that they are now pronounced as they were two centuries ago, in 
the time of Louis Al V. 

From MoliWs "Bourgeois Gentilhomme" {would-he^noUeman), 

Monsieur Jourdain engages a professor of philosophy, who 
proposes to teach him logic, ethics, and natural philosophy ; but 
M. Jourdain prefers to learn orthography, and afterwards he will 
study the almanack, in order to know when there is a moon and 
when there is no moon, so the master of philosophy commences by 
explaining the use of letters. 

Le MaItre de Philosophie. The letters are divided into 
vowels, so called because they express sounds ; and into consonants, 
so named because they are sounded with the vowels, which show 
the different articulations of the voice. There are five vowels or 
voices, A, E, I, 0, and U. 

M. Jourdain. I understand all that. 

Le MaItre de Philosophie. The vowel A is formed by open- 
ing the mouth wide — A. 

M. Jourdain. A, A. Yes. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 101 

LESSON 3. — The letter A exemplified (continued). 

For Grammatical Eules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons in 
" French Language Simplified/' pp. 40 and 42. 

To ihe, — ^Au, m. 8.; A la, £ s. ; AT, before a vowel; Aux, plural. 

1. L'escadre est arriv^e. The squadron is arrived. 
Voici un marbre de Carare. Here is marble from Carara. 
Donnez ce lilas k Thomas. Give this lilac to Thomas. 

II pr^fere les arts aux sciences. He prefers the arts to the sciences. 

La nation I'avait r^compens^. The nation had recompensed him. 

Je pr^f&re le dahlia au lilas. I prefer the dahlia to the lilac. 

2. Quel ige a Sara 1 What age is Sarah ? 

H avait donn^ le ch41e k la tante. He had given the shawl to the aunt. 
Aux cables du vaisseau. To the cables of the vessel. 

3. Nous visitdmes I'Exposi- We visited the Paris Exhibition. 

tion de Paris. 

4. La Sa6ne est une riviere de The Sa6ne is a river of France. 

France. 
Le mois d'Aoiit est agr^able. The month of August is agreeable. 

LESSON 4. — The letter A exemplified (continued). 
The possessive case. — The aunt's shawl, Le chdle de la tante. 

A-t-il ^t^ au bal ? Has he been to the ball ? 

Charles est affable. Charles is affable. 

Hs ont pr^fiSr^ le mois de Mai au They have preferred the month of 

mois d'Aotlt. May to the month of August. 

La salade est sur la table. The salad is on the table. 

Cette ballade est admir^e. That ballad is admired. 

A-t-il 6t6 au pare ? Has he been to the park ? 

L'amiral est grave. The admiral is grave. 
A-t-il la cravate de son fr^re ? Has he his brother's cravat ? 

The exercise should be written in French and English in a copy- 
book. 

This will be found of good service for remembering the simi- 
larity or the slight difference in the spelling of the French and 
En^sh words. 

The small words, determinative expressions, pronouns, &c., oc- 
curring so often in the French language, are given in the Vocabu- 
lary, p. 97. 

Exercise. 

Avez-vous les chdles des cousines de Clara ? Qui avait la cravate 
de papa ? Quand visit4tes-vous 1' Exposition de Paris ? A-t-il ^t^ au 
pare ? Le chat est un animal domestique. J'ai donn^ (given) la 
cage k la servante. Avez-vous pass6 les dattes aux soeurs (sistera^ 
de Thomas ? A-t-il la harpe de la couftine \ CVi^tV^^ ^'sXi ^^dX^<6« 



102 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 



LESSON 5. — On the letter E. 

1. The vowel E has five different names and sounds : — d, acute ; 
h, grave ; S, circumflex ; e, unaccented ; and e, mute. 

2. "With an acute accent (6) E is called in French ^/erW (closed, 
acute) ; it is pronounced with the mouth nearly closed^ and has a 
slender sound, nearly as ay in day, or a mfate. 

Le c&U, the coffee; le th^, the tea; le g^n^ial, the general, 

8. The E open has three different sounds, which may be called E 
open common ; E open grave ; and E open very grave and long. 

4. To obtain the sound of the E open common, simply open the 
mouth a little ; for the E open grave (^), the mouth must be opened 
rather wider ; and as much as possible for the E with a circmnflex 
accent (6). 

II excuse ; la sc&ne ; il excelle ; — ^les, the; succ^ ; — supreme. 

LESSON 6. — On the letter E (continued), 

5. Although unaccented, the letter ^has the open covwrnon sound 
when followed by a consonant fully articulated, in the same syllable. 

II excuse ; Grec ; ^temel ; herbe. 

6. The letter E is pronounced open common at the beginning of 
words when foUowed by two different consonants ; in the middle 
of words, that is when the i with a grave accent ends a syllable 
followed by a consonant with e mute. 

H excelle ; complete ; pfere, father ; si^cle, cenHry, 

From the " Bourgeois Gentilhomme" (continued), 

Le MaItre de Philosophie. The vowel E is formed by bring- 
ing the under jaw nearer the upper one. A, E. 
M. JouRDAiN. A, E, A, E. Yes. Ah ! that is beautiful 1 

Similarities. 

7. Most English words ending in ty become French by changing 
y into e. 

Vactivit6 ; la curiosity ; la liberty ; la sinc^rit^ ; la cr^ulit^. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 103 

LESSON 5 — The letter E exemplified. 
A, an, un, masculine ; une, feminine. 



The sentences of the right hand page of these lessons exemplify 
the roles opposite. The numbers at the beginning of these sen- 
tenced correspond to those of the rules. When a paragraph of the 
left hand page is not exemplified opposite, the number, of course, is 
omitted in the right hand page, as in this for No. 1 of the opposite 
page, and in page 107, where No. 3 also is omitted, though there is 
a No. 3 in the left hand page. 

2. n a un Camilla. He has a camelia. 

Elle a pr^par^ le th^. She has prepared the tea. 

Le cafe est sur la table. The coffee is on the table. 

Ce g^n^ral est un h^ros. This general is a hero. 

4. II respecte le derg^. He respects the clergy. 

Elles ont une pi^t^ sincere. They have sincere piety. 

Son p^re est s^vfere. His father is severe. 

Voici une scfene admirable. Here is an admirable scene. 

Hs sont k la taveme. They are at the tavern. 

LESSON 6. — The letter E exemplified (continued). 
Some, — ^Du, m. s.; de la, f. s.; de T, before a vowel ; des, plural. 



5. J'eus des lettres. I had some letters. 

Le Grec eut du th^. The Greek had some tea. 

lis eurent des herbes. They had some herbs. 

Nous eihnes des chefs courageux. We had some courageous chiefs. 

6. Sa mine est complete. His ruin is. complete. 
n r^p^te sa legon. He repeats his lesson. 
La Gr^ce eut des h^ros. Greece had heroes. 
Nous eiimes de la bi^re. We had some beer. 

7. La curiosity est un vice. Curiosity is a vice. 

La liberty est un bien pr^cieux. Liberty is a precious thing. 

Exercise. 

La n^cessit^ est la m^re (mother) de Tinvention. C'est (it is) une 
calamity pubUque. II eut du c61eri et de la bi^re. Lactivit^ est 
une vertu. II respecte le clerg^. A-t-elle du th6 ? Sa s^v^rit^ 
est extraordinaire. Ces herbes sont salutaires. Oti est le g^n^ral ? 
II excelle dans les arts. Les proph^tes sont v^n^rables. II adre&9A. 
une lettre au valet. Qui a pi^par^ le thk % 



lOi FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED^ 



LESSON 7. — On thb letter JS (continued)* 

The roles on the E and other Vowels, though clear, may perhaps appear too 
minute, but they are given for reference, and to afford an opportunity of introducing 
systematically in the sentences opposite all their peculiarities. A native knows the 
pronunciation of any letter in any word instinctively, as he knows the gender of 
nouns, without having learnt any i-ule on either. In fact, it is not necessary that he 
should know these rules; he pronounces the words properly to the student, which is 
better than repeating any rule. 

1. The E is open common when followed by two similar con- 
sonants with e mute. 

Querelle; politesse; la mienne, mine, 

2. The E has the open grave sound in the monosyllables mes; 
tee; ses; ces; les; des; tu es; il est; also in the terminations et, es. 

Banquet; succ^s; exces; cypres; pres de, near, 

3. With a circumflex accent (6) E is pronoimced very open, grave, 
and long, nearly as ey in they. 

P^che ; supreme ; int^r^t ; honn^te ; une temp^te. 



LESSON 8. — On the letter E (continued), 

4. When the letter E without an accent is not followed by a con- 
sonaDt in the same syllable, it is generally pronounced nearly like 
uin but 

Le, the; me, me; se, himself; arsenic. 

5. For further explanation on the pronunciation and dropping of 
the unaccented E, see pages 118 and 119. 

6. The E is pronounced as a in bar, in adverbs that have a double 
m, and in a few other words. 

TiudemmGnt, prudently ; ardemment, ar(iew%; 
Une femme, a woman; solennel, solemn; 

Indemniser, to indemnify; and their derivatives; also in indemniti, 

7. The letter E is not pronounced in the following words : — 

Caen, a French tovm; Jean, John, 

ft 

Similarities. 

8. Many English verbs become French by adding r. 

To admire^ admirer; conspirer; decider; dissuader; raider. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 105 

LESSON 7. — The letter E exemplified {continued). 

The difference In sound between the S acute {ftrmi) and the 6 with a circumflex 
accent, is very distinct; whilst that between the other sounds of the E is sometimes 
very slight, scarcely noticeable to an English ear. 

Bovk^y — de, or d', used when the adjective is before the noun. 
H a de bon vin. He Acw zomt good wine, 

• 

1. n paie ses dettes. He pays his debts. 

H excelle dans les arts. He excels in the arts. 

Sa politesse est extreme. His politeness is extreme. 

EUe a de superbes bracelets. She has superb bracelets. 

2. Le ministre a d'importants The minister has important 

secrets. secrets. 

Ses projets sont arabitieux. His projects are ambitious. 

3. H a de grosses p^ches. He ha^i some large peaches. 
Voici d'excellent cr^pe. Here is excellent crape. 
Cette temp^te fut terrible. That tempest was terrible. 
II a un z^le extreme. He has extreme zeal. 
Cette f^te fut splendide. That fete was splendid. 

LESSON 8. — The letter E exemplified {continued). 

Some, any, — de, with a verb having a negation. 
Je n'ai pas de peches. I have no peaches. 

4. n n*a pas d'arsenic. He has no arsenic. 
L'arsenal est pr^s de la citadelle. The arsenal is near the citadeL 
H le blame. He blames it. 

6. La femme a-t-elle la cr^me ? Has the woman the cream ? 
II parle prudemment. He speaks prudently. 

II lui a pay6 une indemnity. He has indemnified him. 

7. Jean a ^t^ ^ Caen. John has been to Caen. 

8. II admire ces pistolets. He admires these pistols. 
Elle reside k Paris. She resides in Paris. 

Exercise. 

n a admir^ ces h^ros. Hs ont d^cid^ la question. Le mois de 
Juillet est pass^. Elle n'a pas de cr^me. Ses progr^ sont rapides. 
EUes n'ont pas de p4ches. II a d'excellent«s id^es. lis n'ont pas 
de violettes. Son z^le est extreme. Qui a la creme et le th6 ? II 
est discret. II n'a pas de pistolet. EUes out de beaux bracelets. 
II me conjure de lui pardonner. II conspire imi^t\3^d<&\s£K!L^\^. 



106 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

LESSON 9. — On the letter J. 

1. The letter J is generally pronounced short, as in the English 
words fig, mill, tin, 

Une idole ; une id^e ; ignorant ; illegal ; immorteL 
Militaire ; expirer ; un pistolet ; le cinient ; le yitrioL 
Ici, h&re ; merci, thanks ; il a fini, -he lias finished. 
Arsenic ; actif, m. ; instructif ; civil ; exil ; profit. 

2. The letter I is long when followed by a consonant with e 
mute, and is then pronounced like ie in fiM, or ee in td, 

Un empire ; une surprise ; un crime ; active, /. ; docile. 
Une visite ; timide ; une bride ; rigide ; rapide. 

3. The first I is long in nous priions, we were praying ; vous 
priiez, you were praying ; que nous priions, that we may pray ; 
que vous priiez, that you may pray ; and the like. 



LESSON 10 — On the letter I {continued,) 

4. The vowel I with a circumflex accent is always long and 
grave. 

Une lie ; il dine ; nous vlmes, we saw; des hultres, oysters, 
Un chapltre, a chapter; vous vltes, you saw. 

5. The letter I is not soimded in the following words: — un 
oignon, an onion ; Montaigne, a French philosopher, bom in 1533 ; 
douairiere, dowager. 

From the "Bourgeois Gentilhomme" (continued). 

Le MaItre de Philosophie. And the vowel I is formed in 
bringing the jaws still nearer to one another, and drawing the two 
comers of the mouth towards the ears. A, E, I. 

M. JouRDAiN. A, E, I, I, I, I, That is trae ! hurrah science ! 

French and English Similarities. 

6. Most words ending in ice and iUe are alike in both languages. 

Le vice ; un caprice ; la justice ; la police ; im sacrifice. 
La Bible ; horrible ; possible ; visible ; terrible ; invincible. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 



107 



LESSON 9. — The letter I exemplified. 

For Grammatical Rules and Verbs, see in " French Language 

Simplified," page 52. 

The vice^—los vice ; les vices. L'art, les arts. Une pipe, a pipe, 

des pipes. 



1. Son ami ^tait timide. 
Quel est le prix de cet article 1 
Son cousin est acti£ 
Ses cousins sont actifs. 
Louis est poli. 
]1 a fini ce r^cit. 

2*. File fut active. 
Oil est sa bible 1 
lis eurent des figues. 
Le cidre est sur la table. 
La perfidie est un crime. 
Le m^rite est modeste. 



His friend was timid. 

What is the price of that article ? 

His cousin is active. 

His cousins are active. 

Louis is polite. 

He has &iished that recital. 

She was active. 
Where is her bible ? 
They had some figs. 
The cider is on the table. 
Perfidy is a crime. 
Merit is modest. 



LESSON 10. — The letter I exemplifed {continued). 
The son, — Le fils, les fils. La voix, les voix, Le nez, les nez. 



4. Le fils dine avec app^tit. The son dines with appetite. 
La Corse est une lie. Corsica is an island. ' 

II pr^f^re les hultres au saumon. He prefers oysters to salmon. 



II a une voix terrible. 
II a un long nez. 
Ses fils ont visits cette lie. 
lis ont des rubis. 

5. L'Egypte produit des 



He has a terrible voice. 

He has a long nose. 

His sons have visited this island. 

They have some rubies. 

Fgypt produces onions. 



oignons. 
Montaigne, philosophe fran^ais. Montaigne, a French philosopher. 

6. La police punit le crimineL The police punished the criminal 
Le tigre est un terrible animal. The tiger is a terrible animal 

Exercise. 

Cette riviere est rapide. II visite vos fils. Que a un rubis ? Le 
ministre a du m^rite. Cela est possible. II a un prix. Ses fils 
sont diligents. Je pr^f^re le cidre k la biere. File a une voix claire 
et limpide. Oh. est sa bride ? A-t-il lu {read) les satires de Juve- 
nal ? Le chimiste est avec le philosophe. Son ami {friend) fut 
docile. Buffon ^tait naturaliste. Passez une figue k AssJ^. 



108 PRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

LESSON 11. — On the letter 0. 

1. The letter is short and acute, that is, sounded nearly like o 
in the English words roh, noty nor, at the beginning — ^and in the 
middle of words, either alone or joined to a consonant ; — when it 
terminates a syllable and is not followed by the hissing s; — in words 
ending with c hard ; — when followed by two consonants with e 
mute. 

Oracle ; op^ra ; Homfere ; — colorer ; notre, our. 
Roc ; choc ; — Baronne ; automne ; il abandonne. 

2. The is grave and nearly pronounced as o in the English 
word robe, at the end of words ; — when it terminates a syllable and 
is followed by s soft ; — when o is followed by tion or sion ; — when 
ending with c or * not heard ; — also in all words in os. 

Cacao ; 6cho ; — Rose ; dose ; chose, thing. 
Devotion ; explosion ; — turbot ; heros ; chaos ; escroc, pich-pochet 



LESSON 12. — On the letter (continued), 

3. The with a circumflex accent is always pronounced grave 
and long. 

Dr61e ; tr6ne ; impot ; ddme ; le notre, ours ; le v6tre, yours. 

4, The is not heard in " Laon," a town ; paon, peacock. 

From the " Bourgeois Gentilhomme" (continued), 

Le MaItre de Philosophie. The vowel is formed by open- 
ing the jaws, and drawing the lips at the two comers, high and 
low, 0. 

M. JouRDAiN. 0, 0. Exactly so. A, E, I, ; I, 0, That is 
admirable ! I, ; I, 0. 

Le MaItre de Philosophie. The opening of the mouth just 
makes a little circle which represents an 0. 

M. JouRDAiN. 0, 0, 0. You are right. 0, Ah ! what a fine 
thing it is to know something ! 

Similarities. 
6. A few words in o and ode are alike in both languages. 
Bravo ; coco ; piano ; — M^thode ; une ode ; Episode. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 109 

LESSON 11. — Thb letter exemplified. - 

For Grammatical Rules and Verbs, see in " French Language 

Simplified," page 58. 

The piecey le morceau ; les morceaux. The nephew, le neveu ; 

les neveux. 

1. Son neveu sera k I'op^ra. His nephew will be at the opera. 
Elle console ses neveux. She consoles her nepl^ews. 

II a un couteau dans la poche. He has a knife in his pocket. 

Ces couteaux sont bien polls. These knives are well polished. 

Le portier sera dans sa loge. The porter will be in his lodge. 

Voici votre telescope. Here is your telescope. 

La Baronne passera I'automne The Baroness will pass the 

ici. autumn here. 

II occupe un poste important. He occupies an important post. 

2. La chose est certaine. The thing is certain. 
Cet 6cho est remarquable. This echo is remarkable. 
II a compost une ode. He has composed an ode. 
Le plaisir ressemble k une rose. Pleasure resembles a rose. 

II pr^ffere le caf(6 au chocolat. He prefers coffee to chocolate. 
Donnez un morceau de ce turbot. Give a piece of this turbot. 

LESSON 12. The letter exemplified {continued), 
Unchou, cabbage; des choux. JJuhi^ou, jewel; des bijoux. 

3. Ce com^dien est tres-dr61e. This comedian is very droll. 
Voici son dipl6me. Here is his diploma. 

Oil est le v6tre ? Where is yours ? 

Oil est la Place Vend6me ? Where is the Place Vend6me ? 

J'admire le d6me de cette cath^- I admire the dome of this cathe- 

drale. dral. 

n a pass^ la zdne torride. He has passed the torrid zone. 

Le Ehdne passe k Lyon. The Ehone passes Lyons. 

4. Nous avons visits Laon. We have visited Laon. 
lis ont un paon. They have a peacock. 

5. Oe piano est excellent. This piano is excellent. 

Cette ode est trfes-po^tique. This ode is very poetic. 

Exercise. 

Cet 6cho est admirable. Nous avons un excellent piano. L*union 
fait la force. Cet Episode est charmant. Avez-vous un telescope ? 
II visita ses neveux. Visiterez-vous les bords (shores) du Rh6ne 1 
J'ai un couteau (knife). Une broche est un bijou. II aura une dose 
de m^ecine. Donnez-moi un morceau de pain {bread). L'autonme 
est une saison agr^ble. Je pr4f5re la violette k ran^n\oi;!L<&« 



110 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

LESSON 13. — Ok thb letter TJ, 

\, The sound of the TJ can only be leamt well by hearing it pro- 
nounced. 

2. The direction given by the master of philosophy on this 
letter, in the extract below, firom Moliere's Bourgeois Gentil- 
HOMME, should be read attentirely. 

3. (7 is pronounced short in words like the following : — 

Univers ; humide ; humain ; due; musG; luth ; 
Jus, juice; furie ; rhumatisme ; vertu ; tribu, tribe. 

4. With a circumflex accent, U is pronounced very long. 

Une fliite ; il brMe, he bums; sttre, sure. 
Nous fftmes, we were; vous f^ites, you were. 

5. The letter U is not sounded in tui, ue, u&, vJ^e, ui, and no, 
when preceded by g or q, 

Fatigu^ ; une figue ; la musique ; il communiqua, he communicated. 

For further explanation on the pronunciation of U preceded by 
g, see 0, page 138 ; for the pronunciation of U preceded by g, see 
Qy page 146. 

LESSON 14. — On the letter U (continued). 

From the "Bourgeois Gbntilhomme" (continued), 

Le MaItre de Philosophie. The vowel U is formed by 
almost closing the teeth, without entirely joining them, and putting 
out the lips, as if pouting, bringing them near one another without 
quite joining them, U. 

M. JouRDAiN. U, U. There is nothing more true. U. 

Le MaItre de Philosophie. Your two lips pout out as though 
you were making mouths ; so that if you wish to do so to any one, 
to mock him, you have only to say U, U. 

M. JouRDAiN. U, U. That is true. Ah ! why have I not 
studied before to know that ! 

Le MaItre de Philosophie. To-morrow we will see about the 
other letters, the consonants. 

M. JouRDAiN. Are there as many curious things as in these ? 

Le MaItre de Philosophie. Certainly. 

Similarities. 

6. Most words in vde, uUy and ugey are alike in both languages. 
La solitude ; Tingratitude. — Une mule ; un ridicule. — ^Un deluge. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. Ill 

LESSON 13. — The letter CT exemplified. 

For Grammatical Rules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons in 
"French Language Simplified," pp. 60 and 62. 

Le gSnercd, les girUraitx ; le coraily les coraux. 

3. L'univers est admirable. The universe is admirable. 
Visiterai-je le due et le g^n6- Shall I visit the duke and the 

ral ? general ? 
II a des tulipes et des renoncules. He has tulips and ranunculuses. 

Sa fiirie est ridicule. His fury is ridiculous. 

Le fiitur est incertain. The future is uncertain. 

Le luth est un instrument de The lute is a musical instru- 

musique. ment. 

II est sujet au rhumatisme. He is subject to rheumatism. 

4. Le Turc a des fliites. The Turk has some flutes. 

Je suis stir qu'il le visitera. I am sure that he will visit him. 

Nous iHmes cr^dules. We were credulous. 

5. Auguste est fatigu^. Augustus is fatigued. 
Julie a des figues. Julia has some figs. 

II admire la musique de cet op^ra. He admires the music of this opera. 

LESSON 14 — The letter U exemplified {continued). 

Un opera, des opdras, Un piano, des pianos, Un icko, des ichos. 

Has he a flute 7 A-t-il line flte ? Yes, Sir, Qui, Monsieur. 

m 

6. Aime-t-il la solitude ? Does he like solitude ? 
Oui, Monsieur, beaucoup. Yes, Sir, very much. 
L'ingratitude est detestable. Ingratitude is destestable. 
Le consul a-t-il une mule ? Has the consul a mule? 
Oui, il a une mule. Yes, he has a mule. 

La vertu est aimable. Virtue is amiable. 

Des globules homoeopathiques. Some homoeopathic globules. 

Sont-ils robustes ? Are they robust ? 

Non, ils ne sont pas robustes. No, they are not robust. 

La multitude 4tait fiirieuse. The multitude was furious. 

Exercise. 
Qui murmure? Le cousin du due murmure. Admire-t-il la 
nature? Oui, il admire la nature. Aimez-vous {do you like) la 
musique ? Oui, Monsieur, j'aime beaucoup la musique. Le juge 
est-il juste ? Oui, le juge est juste. Etes-vous fatigu^ ? Non, 
Madame, je ne suis pas fatigue. Oil est la statue du due ? Elle 
(it) est sur la table. Avez-vous du macaroni ? Qui a du muse f 
Le droguiste a du muse 



112 FRENCH PBONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

LESSON 15. — On the letter Y, 

1. When alone, or the first letter of a syllable, and immediately 
followed by a vowel, the letter Y", called in French i grec, has the 
sound of the French i. See p. 106. 

Les yeux, the eyes ; yacht ; Yankee ; yatagan ; Y, there, 

2. The letter Y haa the same sound as i when between two 
COD sonants, or at the end of a word, and is brief 

Une syllabe ; im jury ; une lyre ; un cypres ; Sully. 
Synonyme ; Egypte ; hypocrite ; Sylla ; NeuiUy. 

3. When placed between two vowels, the letter Y has the sound 
of a double French i (see p. 106), the first i being joined to the 
first vowel, and sounded with it, the second by itself : so payer is 
pronounced pm-i-er. 

Payer, to pay; essay er, to try; b^gayer, to stammer, 

4. The letter Y has also the sound of a double French t in the 
following words, the second i rather long : — 

Pays, country; pronounce |)ai-t« ; and the derivatives 
Paysan, countryman ; le paysage, the landscape, 

LESSON 16. — On the letter Y {continued), 

6. In words having oy, that syllable is pronounced like oa-i, 
joyeuXf pronounce joa-i-eux, 

Voyelle, vowd; ]ojeux, joyous ; royal ; noyer, to drovm. 

6. The letter Y has the sound of one French i, though coming 
between two vowels in the follovring words :— Payen, pronounce 
pa-i-en. 

"Payeiif pagan ; Bayonne, a tovm; bayonnette; Bayard. 
Mayence ; Cayenne ; Lafayette ; Bayadere. 

7. Some of these words are now generally spelt with t, and a 
diaresis over the i (i). 

Baionnette ; paien, pagan. 

Similarities. 

8. Most words ending in He and ine are alike in both languages. 
Docile; fertile; la bile. — ^Une machine ; la famine; doctrine. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 113 

LESSON 15. — The letter Y exemplified. 

' For Grammatical Eules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons in 
" French Language Simplified/* pp. 64 and 66. 

I omv at my cousin^ s. Je suis chez men cousin. 
Is he at home f Est-il chez lui ? Yes, he is, Oui, Monsieur, il j est. 



1. Le Turc a-t-il un yatagan ? Has the Turk a yataghan ? 
Oui, il a un yatagan. Yes, he has a yataghan. 

Quel animal a des yeux pergants ? What animal has piercing eyes ? 

Le lynx a des yeux per^ants. The lynx has piercing eyes. 

2. Avez-vous du thym ? ' Have you some thyme ? 
Oui, j'en ai. Yes, I have some. 
A-t-il ^t^ k Neuilly ? Has he been to Neuilly ? 
Oui, Monsieur, il y a 6t6, Yes, sir, he has been there. 
L'Egypte est une contr^e fertile. Egypt is a fertile country. 

II a un onyx et une am^thyste. He has an onyx and an amethyst. 

3. II a pay6 le dentiste. He has paid the dentist. 
Essayez de prononcer ce mot. Try to pronounce this word. 

4. Ce paysage est charmant. This landscape is charming. 

Le paysan a eu un repas frugal. The peasant had a frugal repast. 



LESSON 16. — The letter Y exemplified (continued). 

Monsieur, Messieurs. Madame, Mesdaanes, Mademoiselle, 

Mesdemoiselles, 



5. A-t-il vu le Palais Eoyal ? Has he seen the Palais Eoyal ? 
Oui, Monsieur, il Fa vu. Yes, sir, he has seen it . 

II y a six voyelles, a, e, i, o, u, y. There are six vowels, a, e, i, o, u, y. 

6. A-t-il converti les payens ? Has he converted the heathen ? 
Oui, Madame. Yes, madam. 

A-t-il visits Bayonne ? Has he visited Bayonne ? 

8. Elle est docile et tranquille. She is docile and tranquil. 
Jeanne d*Arc fut une heroine. . Joan of Arc was a heroine. 
Cette machine est ing^nieuse. This machine is ingenious. 

Exercise. 

Neuilly est pres de Paris. Le jury a-t-il acquitte son neveu ? Oui, 
Mademoiselle, il Ta acquitte Le style de Bossuet est sublime. Qui 
a 6t6 chez le juge ? Son neveu a 6t6 chez le juge. A-t-il pay6 ses 
dettes ? Oui, il les a payees. Qui est cr^dule ? Le paysan est 
cr^dule. La lyre est un instrument de musique. La bayonnette 
fut invent^e k Bayonne. Le yard est une mesure ani^^i^^. 



114 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

LESSON 17. — On the simple sounds, AI, EI, etc. 

1. Ai, eaif ay, ei, are pronounced like e (see No. 2, p. 102) in 
fai; also in the peifect and future of verbs, — je dansai ; je visiterai, 

2. At the end of nouns, or when followed by s, t, x, or a silent e, 

Ai has the sound of e open grave (see No. 4, p. 102, and No. 2, p. 104). 
Delai ; je dansais ; il danserait ; il paie, he pays, 

Ai'iA sounded as the very open e, (see No. 3, p. 104), maitre ; nattre, 

3. In n<yu8 faisons, we make ; je faisais, tu faisais, U faisait, 
nous fa/isions, vous faisiez, Us fadsaient, faisant ; also in their com- 
pounds, Ai has the sound of the unaccented e, (see No. 2, p. 122). 

4. In the Past Definite of all verbs in ger, pronounce ea like am far. 

II corrigea, he corrected ; il arrangea, he arranged. 

5. Before the time of Voltaire, oi was used instead of ai in the 
imperfect of the indicative, in the future conditional, and in many 
words in which oi was pronounced as e^ in they, such as Frangais, 
French ; faible, feeble, which were formerly written Francois, foible. 
Voltaire caused this irregularity in the pronunciation to be be cor- 
rected, by changing o into a. 

LESSON 18. — On the simple sounds AU, (E, EU, OU. 
6* At the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of words, an 
is pronounced like o grave ; also a/ux, eau, eaux, and, aut, ault, auld. 
Faux, false ; veau, veal ; ciseaux, scissors. 
Chaud, warm; haut, high; Perrault; Larochefoucauld. 

7. In the following words an is pronounced like o acute. 

Authentique ; autocratic ; automne ; autel, altar. 

Authographe ; augmenter ; aurore ; j*aurai, I shall have, etc. 

Laurier, laurel ; mauvais, had ; autorit^ ; je saurai, I shaU know, etc. 

8. CEJ is pronounced like d accented in (Edipe. 

9. (E\a sounded like u of but in the following words : I'oeil, the 
exje; oeillade, hole; ceillet, ^rifc. 

10. Eu, has an acute sound much like the unaccented e, but more 
acute (see No. 2, p. 122) in such words 9&jeune, seule, &c. 

11. Eu, ORU, have the grave sound of the unaccented e strongly 
articulated — Bleu; neveu, nephew; noeud, knot 

12. In the verb avoir, to have, also in a few nouns, eu has the 
sound of a sharp French u — cTeus, I had; en, httd ; gageure, wa^er. 

13. Ou is sounded as oo in too and room — Nous, we; une source. 

Similarities. 

14. Words ending in OAry become French by changing ary into aire. 

Military, militaire ; n^cessaire ; ordinaire ; litt^raire ; le salaiie. 



PHEKCH and ENGLISH SIMILABITIEB. 115 

Ii£BBON 17.— The simple sounds AI, EI, BA, exemplified. 

For Grammatical Holes and Verbs, see corresponding lessons iu 
•* French Language Simplified,*' pp. 68 and 70. 

Un minidre prudent Vne princme pnidente. 
Dt8 miniiftres prvdents* Des princesses pmdentes, 

L Je visiterai le capitcune. I shall visit the captain. 
Je dansai hier. 1 danced yesterday. 

2. II aime le mois de MaL He likes tne month of May. 

Ce long d^lai Ini fut fatal That long delay was fatal to him. 

n a le portrait dxi isapitaine. He has the portrait of the captain. 

L'air est frais ce matin. The air is cool this morning. 

Je visiterais le paiais dti prince. I should visit the prince's palax^e. 

Le maitre a une belle ch^e. The master has a fine chain. 

3. II feiisait des ext^its. fie was making extracts. 

A-t-ii admir^ sa bienfttisanoe ? Has he admired his benevolence ? 

4. II corrigea oe verbe. He corrected this verb. 

£lle aorangeait sa toilette. She was arranging her toilette. 

5. Ce Francis est tar^s-faible. This Frenchman is very weak. 
H encourageait les arts. He was encouraging the arts. 

XiESSON 18.— The simple^soukds A U, OU, CE, EUy exemplified. 

Constant, constants; constante, constantes. 

Sural, mrauxi moral, moraux. 



6. Auguste a chaud. Augustus is warm. 

Cette eau est<claire et limpide. This water is clear and limpid. 
II visiterait les tombeaux. He would visit the tombs. 

7. Ce fait est authentique. This fact is authentic. 

6. A-t-il la trag^die d'CEdipe ? Has he the tragedy of CEdipus ? 
9. Nous avons dee oeillets. We have «ome pinks.. 
lO* Sa jeune soeur est seule. Her. young sister is alone. 

11. Leneveuaunecravatebleue. The nephew has a blue cravat 

12. J'eus gagn^ une gageure. I had gained a wager. 

13. Nous avons tons de la soupe. We all have some soup^ 

14. II lui paie son salaire. He pays him his salary. 
L*air est n^oessaire. Air ia necessary. 

Ilxercise. 

Cette mousseline est tr^s-fine. II a une reputation litt^ralre* 
Cet autographe est authentique. Elie a tourment^ la servante. 
L'automne est une saison agr^ble en Angleterre {in England). 
Ces domestiques sent prudents. H a autoris^ la publication de cette 
biographic. Je visiterai son neveu. lis sont constants et pers^v^- 
rants. lis ont des droits (rights) egaux. 11 admire la gloire mill- 
taire de la Fiance et de TAngleterre. 



116 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

LESSON 19. — On the Diphthongs. 

1. A diphthong is a syllable in which the sound of two vowels is 
distinctly heard in a single emission of the voice. 

2. Ai followed by the liquid I (see page 144), is pronounced as 
the English letter t, prolonging the sound of that letter. 

Une bataille, a battle ; il raiUe, he rails at ; une caille, a qtiaiL 

3. la, ya, are pronounced as ^a in yard, 

Un piano, a piano ; un diamant, a dia/mond. 

4. Id, iai, and ier are sounded like the French i of No. 1, p. 106, 
and d of No. 2, p. 102 — Piti^ ; je priai, I prayed; papier. 

le, iais, iait, and iaie are sounded like the French i and ^ of No. 
4, p. 102, and No. 6, p. 102. 

5. a, oie^ are nearly pronounced as oah in Noah, or wha in whai. 
La voix, the voice; la proie, the prey; un Danois, a Dane. 

6. leu is like the French i of No. 1, p. 106, and the grave sound 
of the unaccented e strongly pronounced. See No. 11, p. 114. 

Dieu, God; studieux, studiotis, 

7. lo is sounded as the French i (see p. 106), and o — ^La violence. 

8. 0^ is pronounced as oe in poet/ry, — ^Un po^te ; po^me. 

LESSON 20. — On the Diphthongs (continued), 

0. OS, diphthong, is sounded nearly as who and ah in the following 
words, or the French a long grave. 

Un po^le, a stove ; une po61e, a frying pan, 

10. Oui is sounded as oo in too and the French i of No. 1, p. 
106 — Oui, yes ; Louis, Lewis. 

11. Ui and uel are pronounced, the first as the French u (see u, 
page 110) and ay; the second as the French u and the English 
word ell. 

II a tu^, he has Hlled; cruel, m., cruelle, f. ; un duel, a dueL 

12. Ut is sounded as we : — ^un fruit ; un fluide. 

13. After the letters g and q, the u is generally silent, as inua^ ud, ui, 

Fatigu6 ; quality ; question. 

14. In the following words u is sounded though coming after a g. 
Aiguille, needle; la Guyenne ; la Guyane ; inextinguible ; 

arguer ; un linguiste. 

15. In the following words ua is sounded like who and aJi, 

Alguazil ; lingual ; la Guadeloupe ; Guadalquivir. 

16. For u pronounced after q, see page 148. 

Similarities. 

17. Words ending in ory, become French by changing ory into oire. 
Glory, la gloire ; un promontoire ; une histoire; la mtooire. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 117 

LESSON 19. — The Diphthongs exemplified. 
For Eules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons in " French 

Simplified," pages 72 and 74. 

Vain, vain, m., vaine, f. ; prudent, prudent, m., pmdente, f. ; 
famiousy fameux, m., fameuse, f. ; active, actif, m., active, f. 

2. II raille ses camarades. He rails at his comrades. 

Ce g^n^ral a gagn^ la bataille. That general has gained the battle. 

3. Son piano est excellent. His piano is excellent. 
Le diamant est brillant. The diamond is brilliant. 

4. Je priai avec ferveur. I prayed with fervour. 
Cette bi^re est excellente. This beer is excellent. 

Sa ni^ce est prudente et active. Her niece is prudent and active. 

5. Elle a une voix admirable. She has an admirable voice. 
Sa m^moire est prodigieuse. Her memory is prodigious. 

6. 11 est studieux et actif. He is studious and active. 
Votre sceur est pieuse. Your sister is pious. 

7. Oil sont les violettes ? Where are the violets 1 

Sa violence ^tait excessive. His violence was excessive. 

8. Jl r^compensera ce po^te. He will recompense that poet. 
L'lliade est un poeme admirable. The Iliad is an admirable poem. 

LESSON 20. — The Diphthongs exempufied {continued), 
Crud, cniel, m., cruelle, f. ; ancient, ancien, m., ancienne, f. 



9 La po^le est sur le po^le. The frying pan is on the stove. 

10. Louis estril k Paris ? Is Louis at Paris ? 
Oui, Monsieur, il y est. Yes, he is there. 

11. Votre neveu est ponctuel. Your nephew is punctual. 
Sa ni^ce n'est pas ponctuelle. His niece is not punctual. 

12. II accepte des fruits. He accepts some fruit. 
L'^lectricit^ est un fluide. Electricity is a fluid. 

13. Je suis fatigu6. I am tired. 

14. A-t-ellede bonnes aiguilles? Has she some good needles ? 

15. Qui a ^t^ h, la Guadeloupe ? Who has been to Guadeloupe ? 
17. L'ivoire est durable. Ivory is durable. 

A-t-il visits rObservatoire? Has he visited the Observatory ? 

Exercise. 

Avez-vous une histoire ancienne? II a autoris^ ce duel. Ces 
biscuits sont excellents. II finit ce po^me. Sa gloire sera immor- 
telle. Sa soeur est en Guyenne. Sa m^moire est extraordinaire. 
L'histoire romaine est instructive et int^ressante. Votre neveu a 
un rasoir excellent. Je finis cette histoire. Cette poire {vear) est 
d^licieuse. Nos troupes sont victorieuses. 



118 FRENCH FBONXTNCIATION SIMPLIFTEI}. 

ZiSSSON 21. — Os THE Nasal Sorsss^ 

1. Am the combination of the rowels, a, e^ «, o, n, y, with the 
coTiflonantfl m and n have, in most cases, a simple and indivisible 
so«cind, they are called nasal rowels or sounds^ 

2. FiR«T Nasal Souin>. — Am, em, a/n, aen, ea»y en, are pro- 
noTinced all alike, and very much as an in teant 

Vn empire, an empire; nn pr^tendant, a pretender; Jean, John, 

3. In pronouncing the English word want the tongue touches the 
palate at the letter n. In order to produce the true nasal sounds 
of aWf an, etc,, in French, the tongue must Thot touch the palate 
at all ; and so with the other nasal sounds. 

4. Skcond Nasal Sound, — Aim, eim, im, ym, ain, ein, in, yn, 
are pronounced very nearly like an in and, or en in length. 

Impie, impious ; un prince, a prince ; du thym, thyme; un symp- 
t^me ; demam, to-morrow ; le peintre, the painter, 

6. Third Nasal Sound.:— Ow, on, eon, are nearly pronounced 
an on in 1 wonH, (I will not).' 

La pompe, the pwmp; annoncer, to announce; un pigeon. 

LESSON 22. — On the Nasal Sounds {continued). 

6< Fourth Nasal Sound, — TJm, un, ewn, are nearly pronounced 
as tm in h/wnt. 

Un parfuro, a perfume ; brun, hrovm ; commun, commion* 

7. The preceding combinations of letters do not partake of the 
nasal sound when followed by a vowel, as cousine, amiti^, friend- 
nhip ; or when followed by a repetition of the m or n, as in immiortel, 
annuitS, ennemi, enemy. 

NASAL. NOT NASAL. 

L'an, the year; le cousin, m. — Uann^e, the year; la cousine, f. 

8. En, however is nasal in the following words ; — 

Knivrcr, to inebriate; s'enorgueillir, to become provd; ennoblir, 
to ennoble ; ennui, and derivatives. 

9. Ern is also nasal in all verbs beginning with emm. 

Emmoner, to take away. Emmagasiner, to store. 

10. Eiit at the end of third persons plural of verbs has never the 
nasal sound ; these letters are quite silent ; but when the next word 
begins with a vowel, the t must be sounded on it. 

lis avancent, they advance ; lis descendent, they descend. 
]!)ansent-ils ? — lis aiment k parler, they like to speak. 

Similarities. 

11. Most words ending in ance and ence are alike in both 
languages. 

Une lance ; la chance ; Tignorance. — La prudence ; F^loquence. 



FRENOH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 119 

LESSON 21. — The Nasal Sounds exemplified. 
For Rules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons in "French 

Simplified/' pages 76, 78. 

DanceTf danseur, danseuse ; flatteur, flatteuse. 

2. Ce danseur et cette dan- These two dancers have been 
sense ont ^t^ applaudis. applauded, 

lis contenteront leurs parents. They will satisfy their parents. 
Une promesse trompeuse. A deceitful promise, 

lis sont attentifs. They are attentive. 

EUe appr^hende le danger. She apprehends danger. 

II a dlplor6 cet accident. He has deplored that accident. 

4. Ce prince est indulgent. That prince is indulgent. 
Ce peintre est c^lebre. This painter is celebrated. 
Quand finira-t-il cette peinture ? When will he finish that painting ? 
Ce symptome est alarmant. That symptom is alarming. 

II est vain, mais sincere. He is vain, but sincere. 

5. Ces pigeons son tbientendres. These pigeons are very tender. 
Elle a console ses parents. She has consoled her parents. 

II a un style concis et clair. He has a concise and clear style. 

LESSON 2 2« — ^The Nasal Sounds exemplified (continued), 

Frank, franc, m. franche, f ; long, long, m. longue, f. 
White, blanc, m. blanche, f ; sharp, malin, m. maligna, f. 

6. Ce parfum est agr^able. This perfume is agreeable, 
n a im habit brun. He has a brown coat. 

7. Ma cousine a une annuity. My cousin has an annuity. 
Une ann^ est bientSt passive. A year is soon past. 

8. L'oisivet^ produit Tennui. Idleness produces weariness. 
H ne s'enivre jamais. He never gets inebriated. 

9. Emmenez-le avec vous. Take him with you. 

10. lis confirment son opinion. They confirm his opinion. 

Invitent-ils son cousin ? Do they invite his cousin ? 

lis renoncent k leur projet. They renounce their project. 

11. tPadmire sa prudence. 1 admire his prudence. 

Oil sont les lances des soldats ? Where are the soldiers' lances ? 

Exercise. 

11 est franc et sintj^re. II est malin. Elle a un long ch^le. Son 
<gloquence est touchante. II a beaucoup (much) de perseverance. 
L^imp^ratrice est aimable. Elle a une longue robe (dress). J'em- 
bellirai mon jardin. Sa cousine est maligne. Sa prudence est 
remarquable. Quand a-t-il 6t^ au concert 1 II implore son pardon. 
II a renonce k ce projet. II a admir^ I'Exposition de Londres. II 
ressemble k son oncle. Jc pr^f^re les melons aux oi^oiv^. 



120 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

LESSON 23. — On the Nasal Sounds {continued). 

L In words ending with n, having the nasal sound, and coming 
before a word beginning with a vowel, the nasal sound should be 
preserved, and an n carried on to the next word, except in nouns. 

Un an, a year ; bon homme, good man. Pron. un-nan ; hon-nhomme. 

2. En is generally sounded as an. in andy or en in length, when 
preceded by %. 

II maintient, he maintains ; un opticien ; ancien. 

3. In nouns and adjectives that have a t after ten, and their 
derivatives, en has the sound of an in want. 

Patient ; la patience ; Orient, East. 

4. (Hn is pronounced as oo in too, and an in and. Soin, care. 

5. Uin is sounded as the French u and an in and. Juin, June 

6. En has also the sound of an in and, or en in length, in many 
words ending in en, though not preceded hyi; and also in the 
middle of some words. 

Un examen, an examination ; un agenda, a memorandum hook ; 
un pensum, a school-hoy's imposition ; un appendice, an appendix; 
ennemi ; Gassendi ; Mentor ; Benjamin. 



LESSON 24. — On the Nasal Sounds (continued). 

7. Pronounce im and m as in English, in foreign proper names. 
IhraJiim. 

8. Um is pronounced as omme in all Latin words. 

Museum ; Forum ; opium ; album ; minimum. 

9. Am in proper names is sounded as am in English. 

Kotterdam ; Amsterdam ; Cham ; Priam ; Abraham. 

10. Am in Adam has the nasal sound. 

11. En and em have not the nasal sound in foreign words. 

Hymen ; Jerusalem ; Eden ; item ; amen ; harem. 

12. En retains the nasal sound in encyclopedic, nomenclaiure. 

13. The ons in Monsieur, Sir, gentleman, Mr, has a sound between 
that of the English words Muss and Moss; and ieur is like ieu of 
No. 6, p. 116. 

Similarities. 

14. Some verbs become French by changing ish into ir. 
To finish, finir ; bannir ; embellir ; p^rir ; punir ; polir. 

15. Most words ending in ant and ent are alike in both languages. 
Elegant ; constant ; pedant ; arrogant ; ignorant ; un instant. 
Content; excellent ; Eloquent ; ardent ; un compliment ; un torrent. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 121 

LESSON 23. — The Nasal Sounds exemplified (continued). 

For Bules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons in "French 

Simplified," pp. 80, 82. 

He has a round table. H a line table ronde. 



1. A-t-il console un ami ? Has be consoled a friend ? 
(Tai pass^ un an en France. I have spent a year in France. 
Voici un enfant charitable. Here is a charitable child. 

2. II maintient son opinion. He maintains his opinion. 
Etes-vous Parisien ? Are you a Parisian / 
Non, Monsieur, je suis Italien. No, sir, I am an Italian. 

Ce musicien a donn4 un concert. That musician gave a concert. 

3. II a beaucoup de patience. He has much patience. 

II a des clients tr^-patients. He has very patient clients. 

II a fait un voyage en Orient. He has made a voyage to the East. 

4. II a soin de ses parents. He takes care of his parents. 
Elle est moins polie que sa soeur. She is less polite than her sister. 

5. Alcuin fut ministre de Alcuin was minister of Oharle- 

Charlemagne. magne. 

lis aiment le mois de Juin. They like the month of June. 

6. II a pass6 son examen. He has passed his examination. 
L'ennemi est pr^ de la citadelle. The enemy is near the citadel. 
Benjamin a eu un pensum. Benjamin has had an imposition. 

LESSON 24. — The Nasal Sounds exemplified (continued). 
He is more patient tha/n you. H est plus patient que vous. 

7. Ibrahim Pacha visita Bir- Ibrahim Pacha visited Birming- 

mingham. ham. 

8. Je finirai cet album demain. I will finish this album to-morrow. 

9. A-t-il ^t^ k Amsterdam ? Has he been to Amsterdam 1 

10. Qui 6tait Adam ? Who was Adam ? 

11. Titus d^truisit Jerusalem. Titus destroyed Jerusalem. 

12. Voici une encyclopedic. Here is an encyclopedia. 

13. Avez-vous visits le Forum ? Have you visited the Forum ? 
Qui, Monsieur, je I'ai visits. Yes, sir, I have visited it. 

14. H embelfit son jardin. He embellishes his garden. 

15. Ce torrent est formidable. This torrent is formidable. 
11 est arrogant et ignorant. He is arrogant and ignorant. 

Eiercise. 

Julien, empereur remain, r^sidait k Paris, au Palais des Thermes. 
Voici une histoire int^ressante. II a une cravate bleue. Ce po^me 
est bien (very) ancien. II faut que je visite ce monsieur. Pierre 
Gassendi ^tait un philosophe frangais tr^s-^minent et un math4- 
maticien distingu^. lis sont plus ^loquents qiie Qe;\> QTd.\i&>^^. 



122 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

LESSON 25. — On the unaccented and sil&nt E, 

1. One of the greatest difficulties of the French pronunciation is 
to know when the unaccented E should not be pronounced, and 
when and how it should be sounded. 

2. When the unaccented E is to be pronounced, it has nearly the 
sound of u in the English word hut. 

Uarsenal; rarsenic. 

3. The unaccented E is quite mute when it comes after a vowel 
in the same syllable (la modestie), or when final in polysyllables, if 
followed by another word beginning with a voweL 

La brosse est sur la table. The brash is on the table, 

4. The unaccented E is also mute or dropped when it comes after 
a consonant, and is not followed by another consonant in the same 
syllable : ennemi, enemy. This observation applies also to ch and 
qu, followed by e : un cheval, m^thodiqu«ment. 

La broderie de voire cousine. Tour eousitCs evibroidery, 

5. The unaccented E is omitted in monosyllables when the next 
word begins with a voweL See ■elision, No, 8, page 68. 

6. When Je, I, ce, it, follow the verb, the e is retained, but is in- 
variably silent. 

Ai-je un bracelet ? Have I a bracelet f Est-ce ici ? Is it here 7 

LESSON 26. — On the unaccented and silent E (continued), 

7. When the j& is at the end of a word of more than one syllable, 
not followed by another word, as in estimable, or followed by another 
word that begins with a consonant or h aspirated, it should be 
sounded so as to be but slightly heard — it is nearly silent. 

Une belle table. A fine table. Une grande hache. A large hatchet. 

8. For the third persons plural of verbs ending in entf see No. 
10, p. 118 ; for the unaccented E in monosyllables ending in «, and 
in any word followed by a consonant, see No. 2, page 104. 

9. E unaccented coming before ss is sounded as u in but in the 
following words : — 

Dessus, over; dessous, under; ressembler, to resemble; ressortir, 
to go out again ; ressaisir, to seize a^ain ; ressentir, to feel ; une 
ressource, a resource; resserrer, to make tighter ; ressort, spring; se 
rossouvenir, to remember. 

Similarities. 

10. Most words ending in ge are alike in both languages. 

Une orange ; une barge ; un vestige ; un refuge. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 123 

LESSON 25. — The unaccented E exemplified. 

For Rules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons in " French 

Simplified," pages 84 and 86. 

He is very rich. II est fort riche. He is the richest 11 eat le plus riche. 

N.B. — In this and the three following lessons the E,, when silent, 
or nearly so, is printed in Italics. 

2. J'aime cet appartement. I like this apartment. 
L'arsenic est un poison violent. Arsenic is a violent poison. 

II d^sapprouve ces entreprisfis. ' He disapproves of these enterprises. 

3. Ce remM^ est efficace. This remedy is efficacious. 
Cette musique est gaie. That music is gay 

II est riche et g^n^reux. He is rich and generous* 

4. Cette galerie est longue. This gallery is long. 

Ne finira-t-3 pas ce bracelet ? Will he not finish that bracelet ? 

Donnez-moi ces enveloppes. Give me these envelopes. 

Ces boulevards sont tr&-beaux. These boulevards are very fine. 

Bincera-t-il ces gobelets ? Will he rinse these goblets ? 

5. L'orange est sur la tabU. The orange is upon the table. 
J'aime beaucoup cette musique. I like this music very much. 

6. Est-ce elle ? Oui, c'est elle. Is it she ? Yes, it is she. 
Ai-je eu de bonnes bottes ? Have I had good boots ? 
Suis-je prisonnier ? Am I a prisoner ? 

IiESSON 26, — ^The unaccented E exemplified (continued). 

My uncle, men oncle. My aunts, mes tantes. 
Our uncle, notre oncle. Our parents, nos parents. 

7. BUmez cette conduite. Blame that conduct. 
Cette harangue est trop longue. This harangue is too long. 
La servante n*est pas ici. The servant is not here, 
lis ont une belle table. They have a fine table. 
Cette fable n'est pas jolie. This fable is not pretty. 

9. II ressemble k son oncle. He resembles his uncle, 
fitiez-vous sans ressources ? Were you without resources ? 

10. lis ont de bonnes oranges. They have good oranges. 

II y a une barge sur le canaL There is a barge on the canal. 

Exercise. 

Ce cimeti^re est tr^s-vaste. Cette musique est tr^s-m^lodieuse. 
Mon oncle est tres-riche. Ma cousine pr^f^re ce bracelet. Le 
lieutenant soupera k six heures avec son capitaine. Je re^ois mes 
parents. II distribuera nos arm^. Ma table est tres-longue. 
Passez-lui ces enveloppes. II regoit du vin {wine). Nous recevons 
nos cousines. A-t-U un passeport? II me secondera dans mes 
projets. II occupera ma place. 



124 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFlEa 

LESSON 27. — Os THB UNACCENTED E (contintbed). 

1. The unaccented E is generally sounded in the first and second 
persons plural conditional of verbs of the first conjugation, where e 
is followed by the syllables rions and riez ; nous prSfirerionSy we 
should prefer ; vous pr^fereriez ; and in a few words where e is fol- 
lowed by a diphthong, such as ier. 

Un chancelier, a chancellor ; un coutelier, a cutler, 

2. When the unaccented E comes after two consonants belonging 
to the same syllable, such as hi, tr, &c. (agrdablement), or after a 
syllable having a consonant sound — that is, a sound in which one 
or two consonants are ftdly articulated {arsenic) — the unaccented 
e is sounded like u in hut. 

Raisonnablement, reasOTiahly; noblement, nohly; obtenir, to ohtain, 

3. The unaccented E is also pronounced when it comes before an 
h aspirated, and in le, him, it, after the imperative, even if followed 
by a word beginning with a vowel or h mute. 

Le h^ros. Donnez-le k ma sceur, Give it to my sister. 



LESSON 28 — On the unaccented E (continued), 

4. It follows from the preceding remarks, that when there are 
two unaccented ^s in two successive syllables, the fi/rst only is gene- 
rally to be heard ; when three, the first and third are to be pro- 
nounced, etc. 

Je \e ch^ris, I cherish hvm. Je ne le finis pas, I do notfimsh it. 

5. When que is found amongst other syllables composed of un- 
accented «'s, the e of que is sounded as u in hut. 

Que ne le finissiez-vous 1 Why did you not finish it f 

6. Re in voire, your, and notre, our, is generally entirely dropped 
when before a word beginning vrith a consonant. 

Votre tantc, your a/ant; notre cousine, pron. not-coos-in, 

7. The imaccented E in monosyllables beginning a sentence may 
generally be dropped or pronounced ; generally it is better to sound 
it. The ear must be the judge. 

Similarities. 

8. Most words ending in Tie are alike in both languages. 

Une sc^ne; la fortune; laz6ne; une tribune; profane. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 125 

LESSON 27.— The unaccented E exemplified (corUimted). 
For Rules and Verbs, see in " French Simplified/' p. 86. 

Thy y— Ton, m. s. ; ta, f. s. ; tes, pL On est ton cousin ? Where is thy 

cousin^ 
Foitr,— .Votre, s.; vos, pi. II a vos roses. He has your roses, 

1. Vous imiteriez vos parents. You would imitate your parents. 
Inviteriez-vous le chancelier ? Would you invite the chancellor ? 
Vous danseriez avec elle. You would dance with her. 
Excuseriez-vous votre coutelier ? Should you excuse your cutler? 
Vous ex^cuteriez mes ordres. You would execute my orders. 
Nous formerions une classe. We would form a class. 

2. II parlc correctement. He speaks correctly. 

Cette forteresse est imprenable. That fortress is impregnable. 

EmbeUissez votre appartement. Embellish your apartment. 

Qu'a d^id^ le parlement % What has the parliament decided ? 

II se querelle avec le capitaine. He quarrels with the captain. 

3. Punissez-le, il le m^rite. Punish him, he deserves it, 
Ce h^ros p^rit noblement. That hero perished nobly. 
EtabUssez-le k Paris. Establish him at Paris. 

LESSON 28. — ^The letter E exemplified {(xynJtinued). 

His, h&r, i<«,r— Son, m.s.; sa, f. s.; ses, pL Oil est son d4? Jf here is 

her Nimble ? 

2^ir,— Lenr, s., lenrs, pi. Qui a leur balle? Who has (hei/r ball ? 

4. Je ne Tai pas puni I have not punished him. 
Je ne le polis pas. I do not polish it. 

Je ne le redemande pas. I do not ask for it again. 

5. Que ne le punit-il ? Why does he not punish him ? 
Que ne le redemandez-vous ? Why do you not ask for it again 1 

6. Votre cousine est k Paris. Your cousin is in Paris. 
Notre marmelade est excellente. Our marmalade is excellent. 
Votre famille est trk-riche, t Your family is very rich. 

8. Oil est sa lanteme ? Where is her lantern ? 

Cette scene est bien touchante. This scene is very touching. 

Exercise. 
Oh ^tait votre oncle 1 II ^tait en France. . Recevez-vous votre 
cousin ? Je ne le regois pas. Alexandre Dumas est I'auteur des 
Xrois (three) Mousquetaires. II plaide notre cause. II admire cette 
scene. Consid^rez le spectacle de Tunivers et admirez rharmonie 
qui y (there) regne. La fortune lui est favorable. Je ne re^ois pas 
la visite 4e sa famille. II a pass^ la z6ne tomde. 



126 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIPIBD. 

IiESSON 29 — Consonants and Union of WoRoa 

1. Consonants in French have generally the same power as in 
English, particularly when they begin a syllable. 

2. When at the end of a word they are generally not sounded 
at all, or very slightly. 

3. When a word ending with a consonant is followed by a word 
beginning with a vowel or an h mute, the last consonant of the 
first word should be carried on to the second, when both are so 
intimately connected as to require no pause. 

Les^ allies, the alleys. Nous-invitons, we invite. 

In these examples it is obvious that the articles les, nous, cannot 
stand by themselves ; and as they must necessarily be followed by 
a noim or a verb, the s is to be articulated on the next word 
which begins with a vowel, though the s in les and nous is not 
heard at all when these words are pronounced by themselves, or 
followed by another word beginning with a consonant {les voix)» 
This observation applies to the other consonants. 

LESSON 30. — On Union of Words (continued), 

4. The following consonants at the end of words change their 
sound when they are carried on to the next word beginning with a 
vowel or h mute. 

5. The letter D at the end of a word is generally pronounced as 
t on the following word ; — 

Un grand^homme, a great man ; Kend-il ? Does he render f 

6. The last D of a noun is not heard in the following word, 
neither is the final D sounded in a few other cases. 

II a le regard assur^. He ha^ a hold looJc, 
l'. In Nord-Est and Nord-Ouest the D is sounded as D. 
S, F ia sounded as F. — II a neuf.oranges. 
9. G is sounded as iC 

II occupe un rangj^lev^. He occupies an elevated position, 
10. 8 and X are sounded as Z, 
Donnez ces abricots auxjenfants. Give these apricots to the children. 

11. In most words ending in ct, rt, and rd, the last consonant 
must not be pronounced. 

Un sort unjust e, an unjust fate. . 

Similarities. 

12. Many English verbs become French by adding er. 

To accept J accepter ; consulter ; adopter ; inviter ; admirer. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 127 

LESSON 29, — Consonants and Union of Words exemplified. 

For Eules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons in ** French 

Simplified," *pp. 92 and 94. 

This or thcU, CO, cet, m. ; cette, f. ; 06 rat ; cat homme, this man, . 
These or those, ces. JBTe lias those letters^ II a COS lettres. 

In this and the next three lessons the sign between two words is 
used to show that the last consonant of the first should be sounded 
on the second, as it begins with a vowel or h mute. 



1. Mod^rez votre joie. Moderate your joy. 

Je pr^fere ce jasmin k cette rose, I prefer this jessamine to that rose. 

II re^ut ces.ambassadeurs. He received those ambassadors. 

2. Ces^efforts seront vains. These efforts will be vain. 
Ces.abricots sont d^licieux. These apricots are delicious. 
EUe recevait cette robe. She was receiving that dress. 

3. Cet«h6tel ^tait^en feu. That hotel was on fire. 

II recevaitjme lettre. He was receiving a letter. 

Cetanstrument est^harmonieux. That instrument is harmonious. 

Ils^ont^invit6 le docteur. They have invited the doctor. 

Vous avez^^t^ prudent. You have been prudent. 

IjESSON 30 — Union of Words exemplified (continued). 
Take this and give me that, Prenez ceci at donnez-moi cela. 

5. Quand-a-t-il reju ce livre ? When has he received this book ? 
Napoldon fut^un grand^homme. Napoleon was a great man. 
Vous rend-il service ? Does he render you a service ? 

A qui rend-elle cette bague ? To whom does she return this ring ? 

6. II ^tait grand et fort. He was tall and strong. 
II a le regard assur^. He has a bold look. 

7. Le vent estil au nord-est ? Is the wind in the north-east ? 
Non, iLest^au nord-ouest. No, it is in the north- west. 

8. II a accepts neuf^amandes. He has accepted nine almonds. 

9. n occupe un rang^^minent. He occupies an eminent position. 

10. Donnez ceci aux^enfants. Give this to the children. 

11. II sort k six^heures. He goes out at six o'clock. 

12. Je consulterai le maglstrat I shall consult the magistrate. 
J'inviterai tons mes amis. I shall invite all my friends. 

Eiercise. 
Il^a regu ceci et ses fr^res ont re^u cela. II a consults ce docteur. 
Nous recevions des^abricots. Cet^ofl&cier occupe un rang^^lev^ dans 
Farm^e. L*empereur embellit la capitale. ILa regu son diplome 
hier. Quand^avez-vous regu cette bi^re ? Son dnergie et sa per- 
severance sont la cause de sa prosperity. QtL&xk.dL^<&^ \\. ^\!)^I^^ 



128 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

LESSON 31. — On the Union op Words {contiiMied), 

1. The carrying of the last consonant of a word on to the next word 
beginning with a vowel or a consonant takes place as follows : — 

2. Between an article — and a noun or an adjective. 

Les^animaux ; lesJbonnStes gens, lionest people. 

3. According to the general principle given, No. 3, p. 126, the 
last consonant of a noun should not be heard on the next word. 
Custom and harmony have, however, decided that it may be pro- 
nounced on some adjectives ; but never when the noun ends with 
n or m. 

4. The last consonant of a noun is never carried on to the verb nor 
on any other word that may follow it. (See No. 3.) 

5. This union takes place also between an adjective — and a noxm. 

ILa de bons.enfants. He ha^s good children. 

6. Between an adjective pronoun — and a noun or adjectiy& 

Ces^olives ; mes.anchois, my a/nchovies. 

7. Between a numeral adjective — and a noun or adjective. 

II a six^oranges ; il a trois^aimables enfiaiits (chUdren). 

8. Between a personal pronoun — and a verb. 

Nous^arrivons ; il les^a admires. 

LESSON 32. — On the Union of Words (continwd). 

9. This union of words, spoken of in (he preceding lessons, takes 
place also as follows : — 

Between cm auxiliary verb — and an adjective or a participle. 

Ih sont.aimables ; ils.ont.aid^ soiuoncle. 

10. Between an adverb — and an adjective or a participle. 

II est tr^s^honnSte ; ils sont fort^admir^s. 

11. Between a preposition — and a noun, an adjective, a pronoun, 
an indefinite article, or a verb. 

(Test pour^Alfred et pour^elle ; c'est pour^un soldat. 

12. Between a conjunction — and a pronoun, a verb, or an inde- 
finite article. 

II ne chanta pas, maisjll dansa. He did not sing, hut danced. 

13. The T of et, and, is never sounded. II danse et il valse. 

14. There are exceptions which can be learned only by practice. 
Afiectation and harshness must be carefully avoided. 

Similarities. 

15. Many verbs become French by changing ise or ize into iset. 
To orgamse, organiser ; immortaliser ; civiiiser ; tranquillis^. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 129 

LESSON 31. — The Union of Words exemplified (continued). 

For Kules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons in " French 

Simplified/' pp. 96 and 98. 

This one, celui-ci, m. ; celle-ci, f. These, ceux-ci, m. ; celles-lk, f. 
That one, celui-la, m. ; celle-li, f. Those, ceux-lk, ul ; celles-lk, f. 

2. H lui rend les^anchois. He returns the anchovies to him. 
Lesjionn^tes gens sontjionor^s. Honest people are honoured. 

3. J*aime ce bracelet ^l^gant. I like this elegant bracelet. 
D^est parti pour les^Etats- U nis. He has set out for the United States. 
Gette nation est Jnvincible. This nation is invincible. 

4. Ce fruit est^excellent. This fruit is excellent. 

5. Les bons^enfants sont^aim^s. Good children are loved. 
JXjBk ^'aimables.enfants. He has amiable children. 

6. Ces^olives sont^excellentes. These olives are excellent. 
Leurs id^es sont difil^rentes. Their ideas are difierent. 

7. ILa sept^artichauts. He has seven artichokes. 

Il«y avait dans Thdpital huit^ There were in the hospital eight 
incurables. " incurables. 

8. Nous^mirons les h^ros. We admire heroes. 
Les^avez-vous^accept^s ? Have you accepted them ? 
Nous les^aimons beaucoup. We like them very much. 

LESSON 32.— tThb Union of Words exemplified (continiLed), 

I, je ; thou, tu ; he,il] she, elle. 

We, nous ; you, vons ; they, lis, m. ; they, elles, £ 

9* EUe est.attentive et docile. She is attentive and docile. 
Es^ont^insult6 leur capitaine. They have insulted their captain. 

10. La servante est tr^s-active. The servant is very active. 
Us sont fort^estim^s. They are much esteemed, 

11. Est-eUe chez^elle ? Is she at home ? 

Ce d^ d'argent est pour^Am^lie. This silver thimble is for Amelia. 

12. II ne lut pas, mais^il parla. He did not read, but he spoke. 

13. Elle est laborieuseet active. She is laborious and active. 

14. Carnot organisa et dirigea Camot organised and directed 

de Paris quatorze armies, from Paris fourteen armies. 

15. Pierre le Grand, n^ en 1682, Peter the Great, bom in 1682, 

civilisa la Eussie. civilised Russia. 

Exercise. 
Voici deux rasoirs, celui-ci e^st pour votre cousin, et celui-1^ pour 
Auguste. Lui avez-vous^offert vos services ? Oui, je les lui ai 
offerts. Honneur^auxjnventeurs ! Rendons ces chales k votre 
tante. Sa conduite est^un mystfere. II a organist ces^armdes. 
Me est^attentive. J'ai achetd (bought) deux montres (twiteAesV 
oelle-d est pour votre Mre et celle-1^ powx \oU^ c^xx^vcu 



130 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

LESSON 33. — On the letter B, 

1. In the begiiming of a syllable B is sounded as in English. 
Une botte, a hoot; la bible, ihe bible; une table, a taibh. 

2. When double, only one B is sounded. 

Un abb^, an ahhot ; le sabbat, the sabhcUh, 
Both b's are heard in Abbeville, a French toton, 

3. At the end of a word, B is not sounded. 

Du plomb, some lead, 

4. At the end of proper names, B is generally sounded. 

Job ; Caleb ; Jacob ; also in radoub, ihe reJUting of a ship, 
Christophe Colomb, Christopher Columbus. 

5. In the middle of words, B is always sounded. 

Abdiquer, to abdicate ; obtenir, to obtain, 

LESSON 34 — On the letter C, 

6. C has the sound of h before a, o, u, I, n, r, t, 

Com^die, comedy ; le cur^, the vicar, 

Le climat, the climate; une crayate, a cravaJt, 

7. Before ^, e, t, y, and before a, o, u, with a cedilla (§) under it, 
C has the sound of S, 

C^leri, celery; la cit^, the city; il regut, he received; il menaga. 

8. C, followed in the middle of a word by ca, co, cu, d, cr, or q, 
is generally not sounded. 

n accompagne, he accompanies ; il accuse, he occvms. 
n acquiert, he acquires ; actif. 

9. The sound of the double C is heard in the following words — 
Une peccadile, a small fault; Bacchus, and derivatives, 

10. The first c of cc is pronounced as Jc, and the second as s when 
followed by e or i, 

Un accent, an axicent ; un accident, an accident. 

Similarities. 

11. Most words ending in acle are alike in both languages. 

Le spectacle ; un oracle ; un obstacle ; un miracle ; an tabernacle. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 131 

LESSON 33. — The letter B exemplitied. 

For Eules and Verbs, see corresponding Lessons of " French 

Simplified," p. 100. 

It, n, ce. It M necessary, il feut. It is'useful, c'est utile. 

1. Ma Bible est sur la table. My Bible is on the table. 
Ce banquier est tr^s-riche. This banker is very rich. 
Cette bi^re est excellente. This beer is excellent. 

H lui rendit les bracelets. He returned her the bracelets. 

n faut que nous allions k ce baL We must go to this ball. 

Nous lui rendions ses bottes. We were returning to him his boots, 

2. Le Rabbin observe le Sabbat. The Rabbi observes the Sabbath. 
n faut qu'elle aille k Abbeville. She must go to Abbeville. 

3. Le plomb est un m^taL Lead is a metal. 

4. Job ^tait tr^s-patient. Job was very patient. 

Christophe Colomb d^couvrit Christopher Columbus discovered 
I'Am^rique en 1498. America in 1498. 

5. Charles dix fut oblig^ d'ab- Charles X. was obliged to abdi- 

diquer en 1830. cate in 1830. 

LESSON 34. — The letter C exemplified. 

ta ( il, m. (J ha/ve seen your harp, J'ai vu votre harpe, 
( elle, f.\itisa very fine one, elle est tr^s-belle. 

6. Ce prince est clement. That prince is clement. 

n visita le Palais de CristaL He visited the Crystal Palace. 

7. L*avarice est un vice. Avarice is a vice. 

Lui a-t-il rendu ce c^leri ? Has he returned her that celery ? 

La servante est patiente. The servant is patient. 

8. J'accompagne cet artiste. I accompany this artist. 

Lui a-t-il rendu sa cravate? Has he returned him his cravat? 

Votre ni^ est accuse. Your niece is accused. 

9. Voiciune statue de Bacchus. Here is a statue of Bacchus. 

10. Elle a un accent agr^able. She has an agreeable accent 
Je deplore cet accident. I deplore this accident. 

11. Ce miracle est Evident. This miracle is evident. 

Le o616bre oracle de Delphes. The celebrated oracle of Delphi. 

Exercise. 
Je pr^fbe la com^die k la trag^die. II a accns^ les innocents. 
Ne lui a-t-il pas rendu ses abricots. L'avarice est un vice. II a 
assemble ses compagnons. Le spectacle de I'nnivers est admirable. 
Soyez humble et patient. Pr6f6rez-vous le caf6 au cacao ? II £aut 
qu'un prince soit clement. L'oracle de Delphes ^tait c^lebre. II 
a des dahlias. Le capitame est doonome. 



132 FRENCH FBONUNCIATION SIMPUFIia). 

ZiESSON 35* — The letter C (eoniirmed). 

1. C at the end of words is generally articulated. 

Un pare, apar^; un Grec, a Greek; un Tore, a Turk. 
Un becy a hedk ; Cognac, beet hrwndy; nn bloc, a block. 

2. C final is silent in the following* words :— 

Unescroc, a sharper; du tabac, some tobacco; un clerc, a clerk; 
un accroc, a rent; un estomac, a stonuich; un banc, a bevich; un 
eric, a hamdrscrew ; un jonc, a rush ; un franc, a franc ; le flanc, (he 
fla/nk; un tronc, a trunk; il Tainc, he conqybers; blanc, white; 
caoutchouc, indior-ruhher ; les tehees, (he chess; les lacs, the string, 
the snare; also in je vaincs, I conquer; tu vaincs, thou conquerest 

3. The C in pore, hog, pork, is fully articulated when at the end 
of a sentence, or before a word beginning with a vowel ; it is gene- 
rally not sounded before a consonant. 

4. The final C, when silent, is never pronounced on the following 
word, though beginning with a vowel or h mute. 

Le clerc est ici. The clerk is here. 



LESSON 36. — On the letter C (contini^ed)^ 

5. The final C is pronounced on the next word beginning with a 
vowel or h mute, in the following expressions : — 

Donner un croc-en-jambe, to trip a person ; k franc-^trier, post- 
haste; un porc-6pic, a porcupine. 

6. The letter C is pronounced like g in the following words :— 

Second, second; seconder, to second, and in their derivatives ; 

also in reine-claude, green gage. 

7. Ct is generally sounded in words ending in et. 

Strict, exact, correct, tact, tact, feeling. 

8. In the following words ct is mute : — 

Un instinct, an instinct; un aspect, an aspect ; le respect ; circonspect. 
Some pronounce the ct of the last three words as k, 

9. In the middle of words ct is distinctly heard. 

Il^dacteur, writer, editor; la tactique, the tactic; un acteur, an actor. 

Similarities. 

10. Words ending in cy become French by changing cy into ce. 
Clemency, la cl^mence ; la Constance ; la r^gence ; rinconstanoe. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILABITIES. 133 

LESSON 35.— tThe letter G exemplified {continued). 

For Rules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons of *' French 

Simplified," pp. 104 and 106. 

The objectiye personal pronouns are placed before the verb, and 
according to the following precedence, when there are several : 

Me, te, 86 ; noiis, voils ; le, la, les; lui, leur; 7, en. 



1. n m'a pr^ent^ au due. He has presented me to the duke. 
Ne le rendra-t-il pas au Grec ? Will he not return it to the Greek ? 
Oni, 11 le lui rendra. Yes, he wiU return it to him. 

lis pass^rent pr^s du laa They passed near the lake. 

Ne vous rendi-a-t-il pas ce sac ? Will he not return to you that bag ? 

Oui, il me le rendra. Yes, he will return it to me. 

2. Je lui ai donn^ du tabac. I have given him some tobacco. 
Oil est le clerc 1 Where is the clerk ? 

Le clerc est pr^ du banc The clerk is near the bench. 

Ne lui rendez pas ce franc. Do not return that franc to him. 

Lui avez-vous offert du pore ? Have you offered him some pork ? 

Oui, je lui en ai offert. Yes, I have offered him some. 

4. Le tabac est un narcotique. Tobacco \k a narcotic. 

LSISSON 36. — The letter C exemplified {continued). 
Bo not return it to him. Ne le lui rendez pas. 

5. H galope k franc-^trier. He gallops at full speed. 
A-t-il un porc-6pic ? Has he a porcupine ? 

6. Elle arriva la seconde. She arrived second. 
Secondez-le dans ses projets. Second him in his projects. 

7. II est strict et exact. He is strict and exact. 
Bendez-les au due. Eetum them to the duke. 

8. H est trfes-circonspect. He is very circumspect. 

9. Bendons-les h. Tacteur. Let us return them to the actor. 
Ne les rendez pas au r^dacteur. Do not return them to the writer. 

10. Imitez la cl^mence du prince. Imitate the clemency of the jprince. 

Pierre le Grand visita Paris sous la Peter the Great visitied Paris under 

E^ence du Due d*0rl6ans. the regency of the Duke of 

Orleans. 

Exercise. 
La cl^mence est la vertu des rois {hinge). H est sur un bloc de 
marbre. La r^gence du Due d'Orl^ajis &t-elle fatale k la France ? 
J'admire Tinstinct de cet animal. Ne lui rendrai-je pas ce tabac ? 
Vous a-t-il donn^ un franc l H pr6ftre les tehees {chess) aux cartes. 
Quand {when) a-t-il ^t^ au pare ? EUe Taime {loves) et le respecte. 
Le Tore et le. Grec sent pres du lac. 



134 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

LESSON 37.— On CH. 

1. The ch is generally sounded as sh, 

Un architecte ; un chef ; la chimie, chemistry. 

2. Ch ia pronounced as h when followed by a consonant. 

Le Chnst ; chr^tien, christian ; la chronologic ; chronique. 

3. Ch ia pronounced like k in words derived from the Greek 
language not in common use, in Italian names, and in some others. 

Un choeur, a choir; un chorus; choriste; un ^cho; le chaos; 
un orchestre, un anachor^te ; la chor^graphie ; un archange ; 
I'arch^ologie ; un cat^chumene ; le cholera morbus ; Eucharistie ; 
TEcole Polytechnique ; Anacharsis ; Michel- Ange ; Cham ; Ohanaan ; 
Bacchus ; Machiavel ; Antiochus ; Melchis^dec ; Achab. 

4. Ch is pronounced like k at the end of words. 

Munich; Moloch; Henoch; Saint-Roch; BaracL 

&, Chia silent in almcmach, 

6. Cht is pronounced like k in the following words : — 
Un yacht, a yacht. Utrecht and Maestricht, tovms in the Low 

Countries. 



LESSON 38. — On the letter D, 

7. jD is pronounced as in English at the beginning and in the 
middle of words. 

Une date ; admirable ; une id^e, an idea. 

8. D final is generally silent. 

Le bord, the border ; nid, net ; le mont St Bernard ; St Cloud. 

9. It is articulated at the end of foreign names, of French names 
when preceded by a vowel, and of a few others. 

Le sud, the south; David ; Alfred ; le Cid ; Greorge Sand. 

10. When a word ends with D, it must, according to the rules 
of the union of words (see page 126), be carried on to the next 
word beginning with a vowel or h mute, and be sounded as a £, 
particularly when at the end of a verb or an adjective. 

Un grand homme, a great man. Rend-il ? Does he render f 

11. The final D is heard as Hn the following compound words : — 
Pied-^-terre, momentary lodging; De pied en cap, cap-a-pie. 

12. In Nor d- est and Nord-ouest the D is sounded D. 

13. In proper names the final LD or D is silent. 

Larochefoucauld ; Amaud, a celebrated Jansenist. 

Similarities. 

14. Most words ending in id become French by adding e. 
Acid, acide ; insipide ; timide ; rapide ; liquide ; candide. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 135 

LESSON 37. — CH exemplified. 

For Rules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons of " French Sim- 
plified," p. 108 and 110. 

He comes from it H en vient. I have not any, Je n'en ai pas. 

1. L'architectea-t-ildesbriques rHas the architect any bricks ? 
Non, il n'en a pas. No, he has none. 

Vient-il de la Champagne ? Does he come from Champagne ? 

Oui, Monsieur, il en vient. Yes, sir, he does. 

2. Christophe a-t-il du chlore ? Has Christopher some chlorine ? 
Non, il n'en a pas. No, he has not any. 

n a une maladie chronique. He has a chronic disease. 

3. Cet 6cho est admirable. This echo is admirable. 
Cham peupla TAfirique. Ham peopled Africa. 

4. Munich est TAth^nes Munich is modem Athens. 

modeme. 

St Roch a un beau choeur. St Roch has a fine choir. 

5. A-t-il un almanach ? Has he an almanac ? 
Non, il n'en a pas. No, he has not. 

6. Avait-il un yacht ? Had he a yacht ? 
Maestricht est bien fortifi^. Maestricht is well fortified. 

LESSON 38 — ^The letter D exemplified. 
Is he at 8t Cloud ? Est-il k St Cloud ? Yes he is, Oui, il y est. 

7. Le dessert est-il sur la Is the dessert on the table ? 

table? 
Oui, Monsieur, il y est. Yes, sir, it is. 

II est diligent et studieux. He is diligent and studious. 

8. St Cloud est prfes de Paris. St Cloud is near Paris. 

n arriva au bord de la riviere. He arrived on the banks of the 

river. 

9. Le Cid, trag^die de Cor- The Cid, a tragedy of Comeille. 

neille. 

10. Pr6tend-il ^tre sculpteur ? Does he pretend to be a sculptor ? 
Quand abdiqua-t-il ? When did he abdicate ? 

11. Cette ile est situ^e au That island is situated to the 

nord-est de la Laponie. north-east of Lapland. 

12. Cette bifere est acide. This beer is acid. 

Emma est timide et candide. Emma is timid and candid. 

Exercise. 

La chronologie est la science des dates. Cette cath6drale est splen- 
dide, II pr^f^re les dattes aux amandes. Alfred le Grand encouragea 
les arts et les sciences. Oette limonade est d^licieuse. Richard est 
candide. Le dentiste est-il k St Cloud ? Oui, Madame, il y est. II 
est rigide et perfide. Quand est-il aniv^ 1 



136 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

LESSON 39. — On the letter F. 

1. The letter F is sounded as in English at the beginning of a 
syllable. 

Frire, to fry; certifier, to certify; filtier, to filter. 

2. It is fully articulated at the end of words. 

Un motif, a motive; actif, active; neuf, new; neuf, nine, 

3. F is silent in the following words : — 

Un cerf, a stag ; une clef, a key ; un chef-d'oeuvre, a master piece ; 
un cerf-Yolant, a paper kite ; un baiUif, a bailiff; des bcsufs, some 
oxen ; des ceufe, some eggs ; nerfs, nerves. 

4. The F is pronounced in the singular of the three last words. 
Du boeuf, som^ beef; un ceuf, an egg ; un nerf, a nerve, 

5. JP* is not sounded in oeuf when followed by one of the words 
frais or dur, 

Un ceuf frais, a new-laid egg; nor in bceuf-gras, fai ox. 



LESSON 40. — On the letter F (continued). 

6. In neuf, nine, F is fully articulated when not followed by 
another word. 

lis sont neuf. ITiey are nine, 

7. The F of neuf, nine, is silent before a noun or adjective begin- 
ning with a consonant or an h aspirated. 

Voici vos neuf clefe. Here are your nine keys^ 
11 a neuf homards. He has nine lobsters, 

8. The F of neuf, nine, is sounded when coming before any of 
the five months beginning with a consonant. 

Le neuf Mars. The ninth March, 
Le neuf Juiu. The ninth June, 

9. Before a noun jDr an adjective beginning with a vowel or h 
mute, F is pronounced like V, 

H a neuf oranges. He hojS nine oranges, 

10. When two J"s come together one only is pronounced. 

Un aflSsiire, an affair ; aflGable ; boufibn, buffoon. 

Similarities. 

11. Most English words ending in ve become French by changing 
« into /. 

Active, QjfAid ', attentif; lucratif; instructif ; excessif; nata£ 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 137 

LESSON 39. — ^The letter F exemplified (continTied). 

For Rules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons of " French 
Simplified," pp. 112 and 114. 

1, tm. 2, deui. 3, trois. 4, qnatre. 5, cinq. 6, six. 
7, sept. 8, huit. 9, neuf. lo, dix. 11, onze. 12^ douze. 

1. Son influence est immense. His influence is immense. 
A-t-elle clarifi^ ce vin ? Has she. clarified that wine ? 
n a modifi^ ses opinions. He has modified his opinions. 

2. II est natif de France. He is a native of France. 
Le tarif a ^t6 modifi^. The tariff has been modified. 
II est actif et attentif. He is active and attentive. 
II menaga son che£ He menaced his chief. 

3. U a deux cerfe et sept boeufs. He has two stags and seven oxen. 
Nous mangeons trois ceufe. We eat three eggs. 

4. Donnez un oeuf et du boeuf. Give an egg and some heet 
Le boeuf est sur la table. The beef is on the table. 

5. Mangeons un ceuf frais. Let us eat a &esh egg. 

LESSON 40. — The letter F exempueied (continued). 

I3,trelze. 14, qnatorze. 15, quinze. 16, seize, 17, dix-sept. 
18, dix-hnit. 19, dix-neuf. 20, vingt. 21, vingt-et-xiD. 

22, vingt-deux, &c. 

6. Je vous en donnerai neu£ I will give you nine of them. 

7. Hs ont neuf p^ches. They have nine peaches. 

Ce musicien a neuf harpes. This musician has nine harps. 

8. II arriva le neuf Septembre. He arrived on the 9th of September. 

9. Yoici neuf amandes. Here are nine almonds. 

II fut attaqu6 par neuf hyfenes* He was attacked by nine hyenas. 

10. II a un style affects He has an affected style. 

II a des affaires importantes. He has some important affairs. 

11. Son livre est instructi£ His book is instructive. 

II est actif et attentil He is active and attentive. 

Exercise. 

Napoleon fut captif sur le rocher de Saint H^l^ne. H d^non^a 
066 d^serteurs. Le bouffon de ce prince ^tait tr^s amusant. Nous 
8Vons vingt dattes. Combien de clefs a-t-elle ? £lle en a neul 
Nous avons dix-huit chaises {chairs). Comment appelez-vous cette 
montagne? On Tappelle le mont St Bernard. Nous obligeons 
vos parents. Nous rejetons vos offices. II le^^t^ c«& ^ii^c6ilvs&&. 



138 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION 8IHFLIFIED. 

LESSON 41. — On the letter G, 

1. G is sounded nearly as 2 in glazier before e, d, % y, 

Un ange ; T^nergie ; un gymnase. 

2. is sounded hard, as in go, before a, 0, u, or before any con- 
sonant except 7L 

Un golfe, a gulf; distinguer, to distinguish; la gloire. 

3. On is liquid, nearly as in the English word poignant. 

B^gner, to reign ; un compagnon, a companion. 

4. On at the beginning of a word has a hard sound, also in all 
words having stag, steg, stig, and in a few words. 

La stagnation ; ignition ; inexpugnable. 

6. at the end of a word is silent. 

Le rang, the ramie ; un hareng, a herring ; £dimbourg, Hambourg. 

6. The is sounded in joug, yoke ; in zig-zag, also in bourg- 
mestre. 

7. Before a vowel or h mute O is sounded as k. 

Un rang ^lev6, an elevated rank; suer sang et eau, to toil hard. 

9. G is always silent in the following words ; — 

Un doigt, a finger; vingt, twenty; une sangsue, a leech. 

10. is sounded as X; at the beginning of gangr^e, mortification. 

LESSON 42. — On the letter (continued). 

11. Two 0^8 before e or i are sounded like gj. Sugg^rer. 

12. is hard before h ; Enghien, a town ; le due d!Enghi&tL 

13. The letter followed by u is hard, and the u is not heard. 

Guide ; i^tigu^ ; d^guiser, to disguise. 

14. The u is sounded after the O in cigue, hemlock ; also hi the 
masculine and feminine of adjectives ending in the masculine with 
yw, in which the e of the feminine takes a diseresis (e). 

Ambigu,m.; &mhiga'6,f.,amhiguovs. Contigu, m.; contigue,/. 

15. The letter u coming after the O is also sounded in the follow- 
ing words, though it has no diajresis : — 

Aiguille, needle; la Guiane ; \m linguiste ; inextinguible, unex- 
ting^mhahle ; arguer, to argue; la Guyenne. 

16. Ua is sounded as who and ah in the following words : — 
Un alguazil ; lingual. La Guadeloupe ; le Guadalquivir. 

Similarities. 

17 Most words in ige, but pronoimced hge (see Na 6, p. 102), 
ore alike in both languages ; the e that precedes the g in the French 
word taking an acute accent. 

Un coll<^ ; un privilege ; le si^ ; un sacrilege. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 139 

LESSON 41.— The letter Q exemplified. 

For Bules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons in " French 

Simplified," pp. 116 and 118. 

30, trente. 40, quarante. 50, cinquante. 60, soixante. 
70, soixante-dix. 71, soiiante-et-onze. 72, soixante-douze, &c. 

1. Prolongez votre visite. Prolong your visit. 
Avez-vous dt6 k Greneve ? Have you been to Geneva 1 

2. Le g^n^ral a la goutte. The general has the gout. 
Avez-vous visits la Gr^ce ? Have you visited Greece ? 

3. Qui a gagn6 cette bataille ? Who gained that battle ? 

Le r^gne de Louis XIV. fut The reign of Louis XIV. was 

glorieux. glorious. 

4. II y a stagnation dans le There is stagnation in trade, 
commerce. 

Les armies alli^es occupent une The allied armies occupy an im- 
position inexpugnable. pregnable position. 

5. II pr^fbre la sole au hareng. He prefers sole to herring. 

Le rtoe de Louis XIV. fut long. The reign of Louis XIV. was long. 

6. Ce joug est insupportable. This yoke is insupportable. 

7. II occupe un rang 61ev^. He occupies an elevated position. 

9. Voici vingt sangsues. Here are twenty leeches. 

10. II appr^hende la gangrene. He apprehends gangrene. 

LESSON 42. — The letter G exemplified (continued). 
80, qnatre-vingts. 90, quatre-vingt-dix. I00,cent. I000,inille. 
First, premier. Second, second. Third, troisifeme. Fourth, qua- 
trifeme, &c. 

11. II lui sugg^ra cette id^e. He suggested that idea to him. 

12. Le Due d'Enghien fut The Duke d'Enghien was shot at 
fusing k Vincennes. Vincennes. 

13. Le guide est fatigu^. The guide is fatigued. 

14. La cigue est un poison. Hemlock is poisonous. 
Cfette harangue est ambigue. This harangue is ambiguous. 

15. A-t-elle de longues aiguilles? Has she some long needles ? 
(Jest un linguiste distingu6. This is a distinguished linguist. 

16. A-t-il ^t^ k la Guadeloupe ? Has he been to Guadeloupe ? 
17-Quanda-t-ilquitt61ecoll6ge? When did he leave college ? 

Le si^ge de Troie dura dix ans. The siege of Troy lasted ten years. 

Exercise. 

L'Angleterre est divis^e en quarante comt^s. II fut invito au 
mariage de sa cousine. lis arriv^rent le vingt. Charles dix (ten) 
rfegna six ans (years). Qui a sign^ ce traits ? Auguste est au col- 
lege Rollin. Le danger est imminent. II lui a donn^ (given) cent 
francs. La France est divis^e en quatre-vingt-neuf d^partements. 
Pr^f^rez-vous la guitare au piano ? 



140 



FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIBD. 



LESSON 43. — ON THE LETTER H. 

1. JT is called aspirated or mute ; but there is no aspiration 
heard. " When it is called aspirated, it only communicates to the 
following vowel the property of a consonant ; that is to say, if the 
preceding word end with a vowel, that vowel is never suppressed ; 
if it end with a consonant, that consonant is never connected with 
the vowel that follows. To this is confined all the effect of the 
aspirated B"."— d*01ivet. 

Some grammarians say that it is really aspirated in hair, to hiUe, 
and haine^ hatred. 

2. Words most in use with an H called aspirated. 



le hftblenr. 


lahalte. 


la hardiesse. 


haosser. 


hidenx. 


la honflle. 


lahache. 


lehamac 


le hareng. 


haatain. 


la hi^rardiie. 


, la honlette. 


le hachis. 


le hamean. 


hargnenx. 


hauU 


hisser. 


lahonle. 


hag&rd. 


la hanche. 


le haricot. 


hennir. 


le hochet 


lehnaaard. 


hair. 


le hangar. 


la haridelle. 


h^risser. 


la HoUande. 


lahoiuae. 


la haic. 


le hanneton. 


hamacher. 


leh^risson. 


lehomard. 


lehooz. 


lea hailloDA. 


la harangue. 


le hamais. 


le h^ron. 


la honte. 


lesko^eflL 


la halne. 


le haras. 


la harpe. 


le h^ros. 


le hoquet. 


lehngoenoL 


lehftle. 


harasser. 


leharpon. 


laherse. 


la horde. 


hirit, 


haletant 


harceler. 


le hasard. 


lehetre. 


hora. 


homer. 


la hallft. 


leshardes. 


lah&te. 


henrter. 


lahotte. 


hnileL 


la haUebard«L liardL 


lahanase. 


lehlboo. 


lehonblon. 


lahvtte. 



LESSON 44. — On the letter H (continutd). 

3. ^ is also aspirated in words compounded, or derivatives of 
the preceding ones. Ex. : hardi, bold ; enhardir, to embolden. It 
is mute in the derivatives of heros, DUroisme, Vheroine, 

4. ^Tis mute in A uU, eight, and its derivatives, when preceded by a 
number. 

Dix-huit, IS; vingt-huit, 28; trente-huit, 38; quarante-hnii, 48, &c 

5. H oihuit is called aspirated in all other cases ; also in qwUir^ 
vingt-huit^ 88, where the f of n'nyf is not to be carried on to huiL 

Les huit volumes, (he tight volumes; le huitieme, tA« eigkA ; qnalie> 
vin^-huit £rancs, SS francs; le huit Mars, Vis eighth ofMarek. 
For chj see page 134; ghy see page 138; j?fc, see page 14S, 

6. His never sounded after a f . Le th^, tta; Esthec 

7. Onze, eJevtn ; onzieme, eleventh, must be used as if hp^mnmg 
with an h aspirated, that is, no suppression of e or o takes pbee 
before them, nor is the last consonant of the preceding word car- 
ried on them. 

Le Qiue; les ooze vdnmesL Qoatre-vingt-ODKy 9L 

Similarities. 

8w Some "Rn gJMh verbs become French b j changiiig y into mt. 

To jiM(i/y,justifier; verifier; certifier; ntifier; modifier. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 



141 



LESSON 43. — The letter K exemplified. 

For Eules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons in " French 
Simplified," pages 120 and 122. 

Who, qui ; of whom^ dent, de qui ; to whom, i qui. 



1. 2. Le vice est hideux. 
Ce hachis est excellent. 
Habitez-Yous ce hameau ? 
Oil sont ses harpes ? 
La Hollande est bien cultiv^e. 
A qui est ce hamais ? 
Youa harassez yos cousines. 



Vice is hideous. 
This hash is excellent. 
Do you inhabit this hamlet ? 
Where are his harps ? 
Holland is well cultiYated. 
Whose is this harness ? 
You harass your cousins. 



tTai lu aYec plaisir La Henriade, I haYe read with pleasure the Hen- 
" " riade, of which Voltaire is the 

author. 
Hatred is a Yile passion. 
He has bought six herrings. 
Chance has faYoured him. 
She has receiYed fiYC lobsters. 
He has been to the market-halL 
Hungary belongs to Austria. 
Hercules, Achilles, and Eneas are 
heroes of antiquity. 



dont Voltaire est Tauteur. 

La haine est une passion Yile. 
II a achet6 six harengs. 
Le hasard I'a bien sem. 
Elle a regu cinq homards. 
II a 6t6 k la haUe. 
La Hongrie est k TAutriche. 
Herciile, Achille, et En^ sont 
des h^ros de Tantiquitd. 



LESSON 44. — The letter H exemplified (continued). 
Whom, thatf which, que ; qu', before a vowel or h mute. 



8. II admire ces heroines. 

4. Elles ont dix-huit francs. 
II a Yingt-huit ans. 

5. Henri arriYa le huit mai. 
tPai fini ces huit Yolumes. 

6. Voici du th6 et du thym. 
II ^tudie les mathdmatiques. 

7. Qui arriYa le onze 1 
Pr^tez-moi ces onze liYres. 

8. A-t-il Y^rifi^ ce compte ? 
Hs ont ratifi^ ce traits. 

Gela justifie sa conduite. 



He admires those heroines. 
They haYe eighteen francs. 
He is twenty-eight. 
Henry arriYed on the eighth of May. 
I haYe finished these eight Yolumes. 
Here is some tea and some thyme. 
He studies mathematics. 
Who arriYed on the elcYenth ? 
Lend me these elcYcn books. 
Has he Yerified that account ? 
They haYe ratified that treaty. 
That justifies his conduct. 



Exercise. 

Henri Quatre n'aimait pas {did not like) les longues harangues. 
L*hom<Bopathie est un nouYeau syst^me de m^ecine qui commence 
k faire {to make) des proselytes. Admirez-Yous les h^ros ? Voici 
les agathes et les amkhistes que mon cousin a achet4es (bouqhi\ 
Molilre est Fauteur du Misanthrope. 



142 FBXKCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

LESSON 46. — Ok the letter J, 

\' J h» pranoanoed nearly as z in the English word gUusier, 
La justice, judice ; juger, to yudge ; xm jardin, a garden. 

On the letter K. 

2. Kir always sounded as in English ; it is only to be foimd in 
words borrowed from foreign languages. 

Du cafiS moka ; une kyrielle, a rigmarole. 

On the letter L. 
^3.Ljt the beginning of a syllable is gene«lly sounded «. in 

Une lampe, a lamp; une loterie, a lottery; la liberty, liberty. 

4. L final, preceded by e or a, is sounded as in English. 

Un duel ; un m6tal ; fatal 

5. Lib fully articulated in words ending with H. 

Le prufll, the profile; I'exil, the exile; mil, thousand; il, he, 

6. In the following words L final is not heard. 

Un baril, a barrel; un outil, a tool; soM, tipsy; du coutil, some 
bed-ticking; le fils, the son; ua fiisil, a gun; le sourdl, the eyebrow; 
le pouls, the pulse; le chenil, thekennel, 

LESSON 46. — ^On the letter L {continued). 

7. L is sUent in gentil, pretty, before a word beginning with a 
consonant, and liquid before a vowel or an h mute. 

Gentilhomme, nobleman; it is not sounded in gerUilshommes, 

8. L is not pronounced in aulx, plural of at2, garlicy nor in pro- 
per names. 

9. Two L's, not preceded by t, are generally pronounced as one I, 

Une vall^, un intervalle, le college. 

10. Both V% are sounded in words beginning with colla^ colli, 
colli, collo, collu. 

Un collaborateur, afelloto-lahourer; une collision, un colloque, 

une coUusion. 

11. One L only is sounded in colline, hill ; colUge, etc.. 

Similarities. 

12. Most words ending in cd become French by changing al 
into el. 

Eternal, ^temel ; criminel ; continuel ; mortel ; intellectueL 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILABITIES. 443 

IjESSON 45.*— The letter J sxeicflxfied. 

For Rules and Verbs see corresponding lesson in " French 

Language Simplified," pp. 124 and 126. 

Who^ Qui? Ofwhom^ dequi? To whom? i qui? 

1. A-t-il un joli jardin ? Has he a pretty garden ? 
Ce juge honore la justice. This judge honours justice. 
Le parjure est un crime. Perjury is a crime. 

The letter iT exemplified. 

2. Aime-t-il le cafS moka ? Does he like Mocha coffee ? 
Dans le syst^me decimal on em- In the decimal system the names 

ploieles expressions kilometre, kilometre, kilolitre, and kilo- 
kilolitre, et kilogramme. gramme are used. 

The letter L exemplified. 

3. A qui est cette lampe ? Whose is this lamp ? 

Qui a un melon et de la salade ? Who has a melon and some salad ( 

4. Le zinc est un m^tal. Zinc is a metal. 

Ce d^lal lui sera fatal This delay will be fatal to him. 

5. Qui est civil ? Who is civil ? 
Qui est en exil ? Who is in exile ? 

6. Qui a le persil ? Who has the parsley ? 

Quoi ! il a le pouls si faible ! What, he has so feeble a pulse ! 

LESSON 46. — The letter L exemplified (continued). 
What, quel, m. s. ; quels, pL m. ; quelle, f. s. ; quelles, pi. f. 

WhcUy que. What, quoi. 

7. Ce gentilhomme est brave. This nobleman is brave. 

0. Yoici la chapeUe du college. Here is the chapel of the college. 
Qui se querella avec ramiral 1 Who quarrelled with the admiral ? 
Quelle alliance est sincere 1 What alliance is sincere ? 

10. Oh y eut-il collision ? Where was there a collision ? 

11. Quelle colline est tr&s- What lull is very high ? 

^lev^e ? 

12. Dieu est 4temel. God is eternal. 
Tous les hommes sont mortels. All men are mortal 

Exercise. 
Qui a une collection d'antiquites Bomaines ? Ou est le fils {son) 
da colonel ? Les habitants de ce village sont industrieux. Quelle 
balle a-t-il ? II a la balle de Paul. C*est de la tour {tower) de 
Babel, que date la confusion des langues. Quel arsenal avez-vous 
visits 1 tTai visits Tarsenal de la citadelle. Le sol de la France 
est fertile. Quel p^ril est imminent 1 Quoi I il est votre rival I 
Ces gentilshommes sont courageux. A qui a^Vii ^«&i^\% ^^^ 



144 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

LESSON 47. — On the Liquid L, 

1. The liquid L is scarcely heard : paille, straw, is pronotmced as 
p followed by the French d of No. 2, p. 100, and the prolonged 
sound of t6 in the English word pie, p4-ie. 

2. L is liquid in all words ending in ail, eil, euil, ceil, ouU ; also 
in those having iUe, aill, eill, euul, and ouill, in the middle of 
words followed by a, i, e, i, o, or at the end of words followed by the 
unaccented e. 

Le corail, the coral; le soleil, the sun; T^cureuil, the smiirrd; 
un ceil, an eye; le fenouil, the fennel; la fiUe, the daughter, me girl; 
la paille, ihe straw ; la veille, the eve ; une grenouille, a frog. 

On the Letter L not Liquid, though preceded by L 

3. Lis not liquid in the termination illaire, nor in the following 
words : — 

Mille, a thousand, a mile; une ville, a tovm; un Tillage; de la 
camomille ; un pupille, one under age, a wa/rd ; un codicille ; 
Distiller, to distil; scintiller, to twinkle; osciller, to oscillaU; 
vaciller, to falter; imb^cille, stupid; imb6cillit6, stupidity; une 
sybille; Achille. 



LESSON 48. — On THE DOUBLE L NOT LIQUID. 

4. In the beginning of words ill has the double I souhded. 

Illegal, unlawful ; illisible, illegible ; illdgitime, illegitimate, 
Ill^ttr6, illiterate ; illicite, illicit 

5. In yll both Va are pronounced. 

Une syllabe ; un syllogism e ; Sylla. 

6. Both i's are also sounded in the following words : — 

Une allegoric ; une constellation ; all^ger, to ease ; une illusion ; 
un gallicisme, a French idiom ; soUiciter ; de Tell^bore ; intelli- 
gent ; iutellectuel ; Tintelligence ; puUuler, to pullulate, to in- 
crease ; intelligible ; une allocution ; fallacieux ; Bageller, to flog ; 
osciller, to oscillate ; une allucination ; interpeller, to put a ques- 
tion ; ime all^gresse, a lively joy ; une ellipse ; une allusion ; 
ApoUon ; Bellone ; le Palladium. 

Similarities. 

7. Most words ending in a^e are similar in both languages. 

Le passage. J la rage ; Tdge ; un manage ; Timage ; Thommage. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 



145 



LESSON 47. — Exercise on the Liquid X. 

For Rules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons in " French 
Language Simplified," pp. 128 and 130. 

Each, chacun, m. ; chacune, f. (Mers, les autres. 

Several, plusieurs. 



1. Sa famiUe est honorable. 
Ces m^dailles sont bnllantes. 
II obtient plusieurs m^dailles. 
Chacun de nous travaille. 
Je prdfifere les cailles. 
II admire ces merveilles. 
n me conseille d'etre ponctueL 
Ont-ils gagn^ la bataille ? 
Quel 4ge a sa fille ? 
tFaime le mois de Juillet. 
A-t-il ^t^ chez mon tailleur ? 
Ges capitaiues sont vaillants. 
Le corail est rouge. 
Aime-t-il k jouer au billard ? 

3. Habitez-Yous ce village ? 
Le droguiste a de la camomille. 
Cette ville est tr^-agr6able. 



Her family is honourable. 
These medals are brilliant. 
He obtains several medals. 
Each of us works. 
I prefer the quails. 
He admires these marvels. 
He counsels me to be punctual. 
Have they gained the battle ? 
"What age is her daughter ? 
I like the month of July. 
Has he been to my tailor's ? 
These captains are valiant. 
Coral is red. 

Does he like playing at billiards 1 
Do you inhabit this village ? 
The druggist has some camomile. 
This town is very agreeable. 



LESSON 48. — Exercise on the double L not liquid. 
All, tout, m. s. ; tous, m. pi. ; toute, f. s. ; toutes, f. pi. 



4. Son Venture est iUisible. 
Oette mesure est ill^gale. 

5. II a compost des idylles. 
Prononcez toutes les syllabes. 

6. C*est un gallicisme. 
II sollicite une pension. 
Cette alldgorie est ing^nieuse. 
A quoi fit-il allusion ? 

7. Quel dge a cet enfant ? 
Pr^sentez-lui mes hommages. 



Her writing is illegible. 

That measure is iUegaL 

He has composed some idyls. 

Pronounce all the syllables. 

It is a French idiom. 

He solicits a pension. 

This allegory is ingenious. 

To what did he make allusion ? 

What age is that child ? 

Present my respects to her. 



Exercise. 

Toutes ces constellations sont brillantes. Nous admirons toutes 
les merveilles de I'univers. Apollon 6tait le dieu {god) des arts, 
des lettres et de la m^decine. Les Parisiens ne mangent pas {do 
not eat) de grenouilles (frogs). Sylla, consul k Rome, fut le rival 
de Marius. Ce poete a compos6 toutes ces idylles. L'inteUi^eiwL^ 
de cet enfant est extraordinaire. tPai vu {^mC) \.w\a ^%.'& ^asposMoa. 



146 FRENCH PRONUNOIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

IjESSON 49. — Ok the letter M, 

1. ikf in the beginning of a syllable is sounded as in English. 

La musique ; mod^rer, to moderate; un m&t, a ma^. 
For the pronunciation of m preceded by a vowel, see nasal 
sounds — ^pages 118 and 120. 

2. When M is followed by another m, the first is not sounded. 
Un conunis, a clerk; commode, commodious; incommoder. 

3. Both M^B are sounded in words beginning with vm, 
Immortel ; immuable, immutable; immobile, motionless. 

4. Both Jtfs are also pronounced in the following words : — 
Ammoniac ; mammif^re ; commemoration ; commutation ; som- 

mite ; commotion ; Emmanuel ; Emma ; Jemmapes. 

5. Mn are both sounded. 

Insomnie, sleeplessness; calomnier; indemniser, to indemnify, 

Q. M is not pronounced in the foUowing words :— 
Autonme, Autvm,n ; damner, to dam^n, and their derivatiyes. 
M is sounded as n in Beims (formerly spelt Bheims), and the s 
is fully articulated. 

7. The M final is never carried on to the next word. 

II porte un nom illustre. He bears an illustrious name, 

LESSON 50. — On the letter N, 

8. ^ is pronounced as in English when beginning a syllable. 

Une note, a bill; une niche ; une nonne, a nun. 
For N preceded by a vowel, as in enfant, see pages 118 and 120 ; 
for Monsieur, see No. 1 3, page 3 20 ; for ent at me end of a third 
person plural, see No. 10, page 118. 

9. Two ^s are soimded as one n. 

Ann^e, year ; bannir, to banish ; une personne, a person, 

10. Both N*a are sounded in words in inn, and in a few others. 
Innovateur ; inn^ ; innate ; annales ; annotation ; annuity ; con- 
nivence ; annuel ; triennal ; septennal ; Brennus ; Linn^. 

11. In innocent and its derivatives one n only is sounded. 

12. The union of the final JV with the next word beginning with 
a vowel or h mute, takes place only in adjectives followed by 
their nouns, in bien, well ; rien, nothing ; en, in, of it, of them ; 
on, one, people ; mon, ton, son, aucwn. — See page 128. 

Union — Son^ami a monjoeuf, his friend has my egg. 
No Union. — Not carried, Ce mouton est tendre, this m/uMon it 
tender. 

Similarities. 

13. Some words in ine become French by changing ine into in. 
Fine, &n ; clandestin ; divin ; le d^lin ; f^minin ; mascolin. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 147 

LESSON 49. — The letter M exsmplified. 

For Eules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons in " French Lan- 
guage Simplified/' pages 132 and 134. 

No one, aucun ne. Nothing, rien ne. Nobody, personne ne. 

1. Cette arm^e est invincible. That anny is invincible. 
Passez-moi la moutarde. Pass me the mustard. 
Personne ici n'aime la musique. No one here likes musia 

2. Aucun crime n'a dt^ commis. No crime has been committed. 
Le commerce est florissant. Commerce is flourishing. 
A-t-il commence ce volume \ Has he commenced this volume ? 

3. L'dme est immortelle. The soul is inmiortal. 
Pourquoi est-il immobile ? "Why is he motionless ? 

4. Emma est sa sceur favorite. Emma is her favourite sister. 
L'^l^phant est un mammiffere. The elephant is mammiferous. 

5. II a calomni^ ce g^n^ral. He has calumniated that general. 
Qui a-t-il indenmis^ ? Whom has he indemnified / 

6. tPaime beaucoup Tautomne. I like autumn very much. 

U a condamn^ les innocents. He has condemned the innocent. 

7. II a du thym et du laurier. He has some thyme and some laurel. 
Ce parfum est ddlicioux. This perfume is delicious. 

II porte un nom illustre. He beais an illustrious name. 

LESSON 50.*— The letter N exemplified. 
One, ikey, people, on. Somebody, quelqu'tlli. 



8. Sa fortune est immense. His fortune is immense. 
L'union fait la force. Union is strength. 

9. On abandonne ce projet. They abandon that project. 
Ce dictionnaire est n^cessaire. This dictionary is necessary. 

10. EUe a une annuity. She has an annuity. 

A-t-il consult^ ces annales ? Has he consulted those annals ? 

11. II d^couvrit son innocence. He discovered her innocence. 
Ne condamnez pas les innocents. Do not condemn the innocent. 

12. II est tr^s-bon architecte. He is a very good architect. 

Le ma^on est avec quelqu'un. The bricklayer is with some one. 

13. Ce merinos est tr^s-fin. This merino is very fine. 

n est arriv^ au d^din de I'^ge. Hehas arrived at the decline of life. 

Exercise. 

Le ma^on est avec le charpentier. Personne ne le condamne. 
Quelqu'un a sa grammaire. II n'a re§u aucune indemnity du gou- 
vemement. L'astronomie est la plus sublime de toutes les sciences. 
II a admir6 le d6me de I'hdtel des Invalides. Admire-t-on lea 
drames d' Alexandre Dumas 1 Ma leQon est txo^ \otv^^. 



148 PBENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

LESSON 61. — On the letter P. 

1. P at the beginning of a syllable is sounded as in English. 

Une pipe ; poll, polite, 

2. P is generally not sounded at the end of words, 

TJn camp ; du sirop, some syrup, 

3. It is sounded at the end of the following words : — 

Un cap, a cape; jalap ; cep, vine-stock; julep. 

4. It is also sounded in trop, too much ; heaticoup, much, when 
the following word begins with a Towel or h mute. 

5. P is generally sounded in the middle of words. 
Pr^somptif; susceptible; R^dempteur, Redeemer; redemption; 

8ympt6me. 

6. P is not sounded in the following words and derivatives : — 
Compter, to count, to reckon ; printemps ; prompt ; exempt ; 

sculpture ; le temps, the time, the weather; le corps, me body; bap- 
t^me ; je romps ; sept, seven ; septi^me ; baptiser, to baptise. 

7. When double, only one P is sounded : Approcher, appcdser. 

8. Both Ps are sounded in the foUowiug words : — 

Agrippa, Agrippine, Philippiques. 

9. P followed by ^ is sounded as /. Le triomphe, 

LESSON 52 — On the letter Q, 

10. Q at the beginning of a syllable is always followed, as in 
English, by u ; the two letters are sounded as k. 

Une quantity, a quantity; se moquer, to mock, to la/ugh at; 
une ^poque, an epoch ; une qualit^. 

11. Qu is sounded as in English, that is as coo, in the following 
words : — 

Equateur ; aquarelle ; loquacity ; aquatique ; quadrangulaire ; 
quatuor ; un quadrup^de ; in-quarto ; quadrature ; quadruple ; quad- 
rilateral; quadrag^naire, a man of forty ; quoi, what. 

12. Qu is sounded as French cu in the following words : — 
Equestre, quintuple, questeur, Equilateral, Quinte-Curce,Quintilien ; 

Equitation, horsemanship. 

13. Q is sounded in cinq when it is the last word of a sentence, 
or when followed by a noun beginning with a vowel ; Q is always 
sounded in coq, cock 

11b Etaient cinq, they were five; cinq amandes,^i;e almonds. 

14. It is silent in cinq when followed by a noun beginning with 
a consonant, or h aspirated. 

II a cinq chats, he has five cats; cinq homards,^;^ lobsters. 

15. The Q of cinq, five, is sounded before the names of the 
months beginning with a consonant, as well as before those begin- 
ning with a vowel. 

Le cinq DEcembre. Le cinq Ao{lt, the fifth August. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMU.ARITIES. 149 

LESSON 51. — The letter P exemplified. 

For Rules and Verbs, see corresponding lesson in " French 
Language Simplified," pp. 136 and 138. 

To, k. Of, de. For, pour. By, par. In, en. 

1. Qui a compost cet op^ra ? Who has composed this opera ? 
Cette pipe est pour Philippe. This pipe is for Philip. 

2. 11 fut detenu au camp. He was detained in the camp. 
Ofirez-lui du sirop d'oranges. Oflfer him some orange syrup. 

3. Us ont double ce cap. They have doubled that cape. 

4. Elle fut trop applaudie. She was too much applauded, 
n aime beaucoup k danser. He likes to dance very much. 

5. Ne soyez pas si susceptible. Do not be so susceptible^ 
(Jest I'h^ritier pr^somptif. That is the heir presumptive. 

6. La sculpture est un art. Sculpture is an art. 
A-t-il compt^ son argent ? Has he counted his money ? 
II a sept paires de gauts. He has seven pairs of gloves. 

7. Elle suppose qu'il est riche. She supposes that he is rich. 
Nous approchons du port. We approach the port. 

9. Le plaisir est 6ph^m^re. Pleasure is transitory. 

Les proph^tes sont v^n^rables. The prophets are venerable. 

LESSON 52. — The letter Q exemflifed. 
A, de, en, repeated before every word, 

10. Ne me qujttez pas. Do not leave me. 
Cette musique est excellente. This music is excellent. 
Danserez-vous ce quadrille ? Shall you dance this quadrille ? " 

11. Oil est mon aquarelle ? Where is my water colour drawing ? 
L'^l^phant est un quadrupede. The elephant is a quadruped. 

12. Voici une statue 6questre. Here is an equestrian statue. 
Apprend-il I'^quitation ? Does he learn horsemanship ? 

13. lis 6taient cinq. There were five of them. 

n lui a donn6 cinq amandes. He has given her five almonds. 

14. J*ai cinq pistolets. I have five pistols. 

II a achet^ cinq homards. He has bought five lobsters. 

15. Le cinq Septembre 1825. The fifth of September 1825. 

n est arrive le cinq Avril. He has arrived on the fifth April. 

Exercise. 

II a pass6 sous la ligne de T^quateur. Avez-vous admir^ la 
statue ^questre d'Henri quatre ? L'^quateur est un cercle ima- 
ginaire qui divise la terre (earth) en deux parties 6gales. A-t-il 6t6 
a la banque et i Bourse (Exchange)! Ces domestiques sont 
honnStes et constants. La politique d^sunit souvent (often) lea 
fEuuilles. Pr^^rez-vous la musique sacrde h» ]s^,\ss!)!ss3^ ^^ss^sssiX 



150 FRENCH PRONUKCIATION SOKPLIFIED. 

LESSON 53. — OV THE LETTER 12. 

1. jR is sounded mudi stronger and more from the throat than 
in English. 

I/e reste, the red, the remainder; le remMe, the remedy, 

2. R, coming after a, t, o, ti is sounded. 

Le char, the chariot; le plaisir, ihe pleasure; For, gM; mar, vxdL 

3. i2 is silent in Monsieur (see page 120, No. 13) ; in vi^e, notre, 
but it is sounded in Notre-Dame, our Lady, and in the Lord's 
Prayer, Notre Fhre^ &c 

4. 2? is sounded after e in monosyllables, foreign nouns, and 
names of towns, rivers, &c. 

Fer, iron; fier,prot«i;le Cher; Thiers; Lavater; Luther; Neoker. 

5. /{ is silent after e in most polysyllables, also in verbs of the 
first conjugation. 

IJn rocher, a rock; le danger ; respecter, to respect 

6. The E final of adjectives is carried on to the vowel of the fol- 
lowing noun : — Un siugulier dv^nement, a singular event 

7. In familiar conversation the R final of verbs in er is not 
always carried on to the next word ; it is in poetry, 

II d<Ssire aller k Paris. He wishes to go to Paris. 



LESSON 54. — On the letter R (ecnHnued). 

8. R is ftiUy articulated in the following words :— 
Amor, hitter; un cancer, a cancer; une cuiller, a spoon; enfer, 
heU; 6ther, ether; un hiver, a winter; un belvWer, helffidere, turreL 
Outremer, heyond sea ; j'acquiers, I acquire ; tu acquiers, il acquiert 

0. The two R9 are soimded in words berinning with ir, 
Irr^gulicr, irregular; irrationnel, irroSionat 

10. Also in the future and conditional of a^i^riry to acquire ; 
tnotiftf , to die ; couriry to run, and compounds of courir, 

II mourra, he shall die ; j^acquerrai, J shaU acquire; je oourrais, 

I would run, 

11. The two Rs are also sounded in the following words : — 
L'horreur ; error, to err ; erron^, erroneous ; aberration ; horrible ; 

une erreur ; terrible ; Burrhus ; Pyrrhus. 

12. One R only is heard in irritcr, to irritate. 

13. One R only is hoard in all other words having the double r. 
Nourrir, to nourish; arriver, to arriw; entener, to bury. 

Similarities. 

14. Most words ending in or and our become French by chang- 
ing these finals into eur, 

Jm4tdor,vinai€iteoi; professeur; mineor; protecteor; visitear. 



FJEIENCH AND ENGLISH 8IMILAB1TIE8. 151 

IjESSON 53. — The letter B eilemplified. 

For Rules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons in " French 
Language SimpUfied/ pp. 140 and 142. 

Toy in, is ^ before names of towns ; en before names of countries. 
He is in Paris, 11 est k Paris. He goes to France, il va en Prance. 

1. II favorise vos projets. He favours your projects. 

De quelle couleur est ce ruban ? Of what colour is that ribbon ? 

Son fils a six paires de bottes. His son has six pairs of boots. 

2. II implore sa faveur. He implores his favour. 
Le plaisir ressemble k une rose. Pleasure resembles a rose. 
L*air de la France est pur. The air of France is pure. * 
En ^tes-vous siir ? Are you sure of it ? 

3. Monsieur, ne murmurez pas. Sir, do not murmur. 
Oil est notre d6ier ? Where is our dinner. 

4. Le fer et Tor sont utiles. Iron and gold are useftd. 

Mon cher ami, ne soyez pas fier. My dear friend, do not be proud. 

5. Get officier le prot^e. That officer patronises him* 
Le jardinier est dans le jardin. The gardener is in the garden. 

6. Un l^ger effort suffira. A slight effort will suffice. 

7. II desire souper k dix heures. He desires to sup at ten o'clock. 

LESSON 54<-»The letter B exemplified (continued). 
With, avec ; out of, outside of, hors de. 

8. Get hiver est rigoureux. This winter is rigorous. 
II est arriv6 k six heures. He arrived at six o'clock. 

9. Son cousin est irritable. His cousin is irritable. 
Sa conduite est irr^gulifere. Her conduct is irregular. 

10. n acquerra des richesses. He will acquire riches. 
Nous courrons plus vite. We shall run quicker. 
EUe mourra de d^sespoir. She will die of despair. 

11. II a horreur du vice. He has a horror of vice. 
Erreur n'est pas crime. Error is not crime. 

13. II est arriv^ avec elle. He arrived with her. 

Son arrogance est bien grande. His arrogance is very great, 

14. Get acteur et ce professeur This actor and that professor are 
sont cousins. cousins. 

Exercise. 
Voici de Tether. Je pr^ffere les plaisirs de I'hiver aux plaisirs 
de Tautomne. II est k Rouen. Je suis en France. La mer (sea) 
^tait calme, et I'air pur et frais. Ge prince acquerra de la gloire. 
Son erreur est excusable. Quand irez-vous (shall you go) en FTO3MSfc\ 
Quand irez-vous k Paris ? II intenogealea «a^\>&^. 



152 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

LESSON 55. — On the letter 8. 

1. 8 iu the beginning of words is sounded as in sister. 

Sincere ; un syst^me ; une sphere. 

2. 8 has the same hissing hard sound in the middle of a word, 
when preceded or followed by another consonant, and when two «^s 
occur together. 

Persuader, to persuade; la distance; la d^tresse, the distress. 

3. In the following words s has the sound of z, 

Alsace ; balsamique ; une transaction ; transitoire ; une transition ; 
le presbjt^re, the parsonage house; transitif; transalpine jasmin, 
jesmmine ; transiger, to compromise. 

4. 8 between two Towels is sounded as z. 

Une mesure; proposer, to propose; la misfere. 

5. 8, however, has the hissing sound in compound words, even 
when between two vowels. 

Un parasol ; la pr^s^nce, the precedence; vraisemblance, likeli'' 
hood; vraisemblable, likely; tournesol, sun-flower; also in gisant, 
lying; entriBsol, an apartment {or floor) in a Paris house, sUuoited 
between the ground floor and the flrst flx>or. 

LESSON 56. — The letter 8 (continued). 

6. The 8has the sound of » in sbire, an Italian policeman; svelte, 
slender ; Sganarelle (one of the persons in Moli^re's plays). 

7. Double 8 is heard in the following words : — 

Admissible, allowable; accessible, approachable; cour de cassa- 
tion, court of appeal; essor, flight; fissure, cleft; une missive, a 
letter. 

8. The 8 is not heard in sc, sch, followed by e or i. 

Sc^ne ; im sceau, a seal; une scie, a saw; schisme. 

Similarities. 

9. Most English words ending in ic or ical become French by 
changing ic or ical into ique. 

Critical, critique ; comique ; la r^publique ; un domestique. 

10. Most words ending in ion are alike in both languages. 

La nation ; une notion ; I'^ucation ; nne opinion ; une condition. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH 8IMILABITIES. 153 

LESSON 55. — ^The letter S exemplified. 

For Rules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons in " French 

Language Simplified/' pp. 144 and 146. 

And, et; but, mais; when, quand; if, si; hecamse, parce que; or, on, 

1. Ce syst^me est admirable. This system is admirable. 
Sa s^vdrit^ est extreme. His severity is extreme. 

2. Sa destin^e est strange. Her destiny is strange. 
Cette mousseline est fine. This muslin is fine. 

Sa constitution est trfes-faible. Her constitution is very feeble. 
Get usurier est discret. This usurer is discreet. 

3. Avez-vous visits TAlsacel Have you visited Alsace ? 

n a 6t6 au presbyt^re. He has been to the presbytery. 

Cette transaction est honorable. That transaction is honourable. 

Voici du jasmin. • Here is some jessamine. 

4. Ce paysan est robuste. This countryman is robust. 

.11 propose une mesure s^vfere. He proposes a severe measure. 

Sa prisence est n^cessaire icL Her presence here is necessary. 

Placez cette rose dans ce vase. Place this rose in that vase. 

5. on est son parasol bleu ? Where is her blue parasol ? 
Ce qu*il dit est vraisemblable. What he says is probable. 

LESSON 56. — ^The letter 8 exemplified (continued). 
In order to, afin de; before, avant de; as soon as, aussitot que. 



6. Le sbire est un agent de The sbire is an agent of police in 

police en Italic. Italy. 

Sa taille est svelte et 61^gante. Her figure is slender and elegant. 

7. Le ministre est accessible. The minister is accessible. 
Quand a-t-il re§u cette missive ? When did he receive this missive? 

8. II a admir^ cette scene. He has admired this scene. 

9. Oti sont vos domestiques? Where are your domestics? 

Le t^l^graphe ^lectrique est une The electric telegraph is a re- 
invention remarquable. markable invention. 

10. Son opinion est exag^r^e. His opinion is exaggerated. 

II a regu une bonne Mucation. He has received a good education. 

Exercise. 

Le climat de la Sicile est magnifique. II n*a aucune notion de 
cette science. Voici la sauce pour le saumon. Thomas Becket ftit 
assassin^ sous le r^gne d'Henri II. Quelle est votre opinion sur 
cette nation ? Le secretaire du g^n^ral est honn^te. II s*int6res^ 
sait k son oncle. Ces domestiques sont honnStes et constants. Pasaez.- 
moi la salade. II aspire aux honneurs, H ^ ot. ^gaia^^ ^<&^\^^ss^s^. 



154 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

IjESSON 57. — On the letter 8 (contmued). 

1. The letter 8 at the end of a word is generally silent. 
Le temps, (he time; du vemis, some varnish; tin repas. 

2. i8f is always pronounced, and has a sharp sound in foreign 
proper names, and in the following words : — 

Themis; Gil Bias; Brutus; Y^nus, &c.; alo^s; un atlas; hdlasi 
cUds! Mars ; les sens ; Reims (formerly spelt Bheim^,) is nearly 
pronounced Bainss; un as, an ace ; le blocus, ^ blockade; gratis ; 
onmibus ; prospectus ; merinos ; le lis, ihe lily; jadis, formerly; 
une vis, a screv?; toume-vis, turn-screw; un fils, a son; moeurs, 
mam,ners; un ours, a hear; un r6bus ; Bubens ; bis, encore. 

3. The 8 is also heard in tons, all, when used without a noun, 
that is, as a pronoun. 

lis y 6taient tons. They aM were (here. 

4. The 8 in tovs, used as an adjective, is not heard. 

Tons ses enfants sont icL AUhis children are here. 

5. The 8 in des, first syllable of proper nouns, is not heard. 

Descartes ; Gamille DesmouUns. 

IjESSON 58.«-0n the letter 8 (continued). 
FoTy a conjunction, car ; for, a preposition, pouT. 

6. The letter 8 is not heard in the following words : — 
Lesquels, who, which; desquels, &c.; Mesdames ; MesdemoiseUes. 

7. The letter 8 is also silent in the following names : — 
L'Hospital ; le Maistre ; Nesle ; Duguesdin ; Praslin. 

Similarities. 

8. Many words ending in ce are alike in both languages. 

Une province ; un prince ; la force ; un divorce. 

9. Some English words beginning with 8 followed by another 
consonant become French by changing the s into e, as, stranger, 
stranger ; and also sometimes by undergoing another slight altera- 
tion. 



8trangerf Stranger. 

8pice8, Apices. 

Strange, Strange. 

School, ^ole. 

Scripturtf ^crituxe. 



Study, 4tade. 

Standard, ^tendard. 

StaU, 4tat 

Space, espace. 

Species, esp^oe. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILABITIES. 155 

LESSON 57. — ^The letter 8 exemplified {continued). 

For Eules and Yerbs, see corresponding lessons in ^^ French 

Language Simplified," pp. 148 and 150. 

That, q^ue, often understood in English, never so in French. 

1. II a fait un repas fru^ He has made a frugal repast. 
Le remords prouve la conscience. Bemorse proves a conscience. 
Je crois qu'il arrive de Paris. I believe he comes from Paris. 

2. Le lis est une fleur. The lily is a flower. 
L'alo^s est une plante d'Afrique. The aloe is an African plant. 
Gil Bias est tr^-amusant. Gil Bias is very amusing. 

II prit Tatlas de son fils. He took his son's atlas. 

Je pr^f^re ce merinos bleu. I prefer this blue merino. 

II arriva par Tonmibus. He arrived by the omnibus. 

3. Danserons-nous tous ? Shall we all dance ? 

4. U a tous les as. He has all the aces. 
Donnez-lui tous ces livres. Give him all those books. 

6. Descartes, auteurdu ^' Dis- Descartes, author of " Discours 
cours sur la M^thode," sur la M^thode,'' was bom in 
naquit en 1650. 1650. 

Camille Desmoulins p^rit avec Oamille Desmoulin perished with 

Danton sur T^chafaud, en 1 794 Danton on the scadSbld in 1 794. 

IjESSON 58. — ^The letter 8 exemplified {continued). 
For, a conjunction, car ; for, a preposition, pour. 

6. Mesdames, voici vos d^s. Ladies, here are your thimbles. 

8. Ge prince ^tudie beaucoup. That prince studies much. 

n a visits cette province. He has visited that province. 

Lunion fait la force. Union is strength. 

La loi du divorce existe en Angle- The law of divorce exists in £ng- 
terre. land. 

9. Get Stranger ne sortira pas, This stranger will not go out for 

car il pleut. it rains. 

Oh a-t-il acljiet^ ces Apices ? Where has he bought these spices? 

Get ^v^nement est etrange. That event is strange. 

L'^tude est son plaisir. Study is his pleasure. 

Exercise. 

Je pense {think) qu'il a 6t6 h, Londres et k Paris. Ses progres 
sont rapides d^is toutes les sciences. L'auditoire satisfait, cria : bis ! 
bis! Nous avoDs cinq sens. Ses avis sont salutaires. Ge lilas et 
ce lis sont pour Gharles. Quelle est la distance de Londres k Paris? 
Ne sortez pas, car il pleut {rains), U pense que le repos vous est 
n^cessaire. Je sais qu'il a regu ces prospectua. 



1^ WBXXCSl IVQirnrCOLAXKIS SlSriOflliZL 

1. Tfaelettier F «t 'die b^gimmig of m ijiblbSe is^gpaaaSfyhad^ 
w in t^ Fiiigfeih ward Ubl 

2. Tizi tbe middk of irordfi i£ soimded iif £, in aH urards villi 
lift, t^ensLf ad; in Tei^ in fiflr, and in tbeor dtscivitliv^s. 

IxisaitBaSaile : esBentkH: BupB T BllLi ggL ; siafaitiefux ; haSbmiaa:, to 
stamumer; initkc, to V^ziitMKtf ; &c^ exoeiA fitoaffr, t6 'dbcrtiw. 

3. In iJQ frords iritih -aiHc sud^ctic 

Anstoccatie ; proplk^^ ; eUsB im mep&t ; TiiTmaae ; la Beotie. 

4u In the £zuil tievi of xEKmeE cf nutiaiK, <dTiiasdeB, &c. 

Les V-emtkoQE ; leE S^grpdenF ; lee Oa^ielifiiffi ; Diodeitaeii ; Ip 
Titaen ; except -dh/rctim ; difrctian^^ -whsspt i k BoimdBd as in tm, 

5. In iiket teniunalicmE tioii, t?«£^ t!t«». 

Unfe ocmditian ; la diotaton : Actim& ; Ghxttiof ; «2w im, 
palafezkoe ; fiatieft«e, fi^Uf im labour •oom^pfffrnMi -AaimaimE^ 

6l F is Bonnded as in fesL in tbe £n&I :t)Mi, tuiZ, tm, ix^ idMn 
preoeded lij -f or x, or ioEkrwed Itt j^ ako in is(»^ 

Unfe djn&Btie; Sebustaen ; la srinpailihTf ; TnTmititf., tmrndhf. 



L — Oy TraHc umgca F IpmOmmBi). 

1. Tiie ietstio: F is «1bo ]pr<aaMiiiiBOBd as in 1^ KngjliHih n^nanL fas in 
AOfQZffi iQ w, land in the i^st a3»d saccnd peETsoDS pihiTBl «f tiie im- 
pecfed: indicastdiv and pnssenl SQ.1»jim{tt3T¥ af teo:^ •eoEdiz^ in ler in 
tike infinitaTe- 

Un paciiec. « pfftieir; xmiliec, ito i/mitalbe ; nsne JrmitinBML 

8. F is ^fentBraHj alent al tbe ^nd of woErds. 

9. Al< ibe CEDd ^ tbe f oSk^ong irotrds lomi tfaor desivitii«s F is 
fiooanded: — 

\jt oootafCit ; ^on £ut, « loeuvMim^ c un hrtii ; •oanwtt : infedt ; eiact ; 
ijQiiBet ; stikst ; ite miiifit : \tti^frrm^it : iarat, T^ew^ ; chnt, Mufc .' 
Bdt^ 9a»6i^ ddmm ; le sdnidi ; r<cnxesn^ tJW weflf ; iTesl, f%< md; le 

RjiBiiairiiltMa&. 

10. M<»rt "Knglliffh toIb esidxng in €GS6i! twoonae ¥^nndk hf diang- 

ini^4idbB in^ ^sr. 
A €wik^enri^ cnildhrer ; dfioaKsr; eaksato; keaKec. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 



167 



LESSON 59. — ^The letter T exemplified. 

For Rules and Verbs, see corresponding lesson in *' French 
Language Simplified/* pages 152 and 154. 

Adverbs a/re placed after the verb. Je restime beaucoup. 



1. Ne touchez pas k ces fruits. Do not touch this fruit. 

Je pr^f&re la rose k la tulipe. I prefer the rose to the tulip. 
Ne consultez pas ]m flatteur. Do not consult a flatterer. 

2. Son cousin est ambitieux. Her cousin is ambitious. 

Le Spartiate ^tait sobre et brave. The Spartan was sober and brave. 
Yous a-t-il initio ^ cet art ? Has he initiated you in this art ? 

II est tres-superstitieux. He is very superstitious. 

3. Son oncle pr6ffere-t-il Taris- Does his uncle prefer the aristo- 

tocratie k la democratic ? cracy to the democracy ? 
Cette proph^tie est accomplie. That prophecy is accomplished. 

4. II estime peu ce V^nitien. He little esteems that Venetian. 
Le Titien fut un grand peintre. Titien was a great painter. 

5. Cette, nation est g^n^reuse. That nation is generous. 
Son ambition est insatiable. His ambition is insatiable. 
Votre invention est admirable. Your invention is admirable. 
Qui gagna la bataille d'Actium ? Who gained the battle of Actium ? 

6. I^ modestie est une yertu. Modesty is a virtue. 

II a gagn4 ma sympathie. He has gained my sympathy. 



LESSON 60. — The letter T exemplified (continited). 
Here, ici ; iherey Ik, y ; where^ oil ; everywhere, partout^ near, prte. 



7. Nous imitiohs ses actions. 
Le potier insulte le fruitier. 

8. A-t-il 6t6 au concert ? 
Le dessert est sur la table. 
L'art embellit la nature. 

9. Get histonen est exact. 
Jouez-vous au whist ? 

10. Cultivez son amiti^. 
II a d^cor^ son appartement. 



We were imitating his actions. 
The potter insults the fruiterer. 
Has he been to the concert ? 
The dessert is on the table. 
Art embellishes nature. 
That historian is exact. 
Do you play at whist ? 
Cultivate his friendship. 
He has decorated his apartment. 



Exercise. ' 

Ce manuscrit est correct. Les^ passeports sont-ils encore (still) 
n^cessaires ? II y a une Eclipse partielle. Get architecte est fort 
patient. Quelle partie de la France avez-vous visit^e ? Le chat 
est un animal domestique. Octave gagna la bataille d' Actium sur 
Pomp^ et Cl^opatre. II insulte toujours (always) au sentiment 
national Oil est-il ? H est ici, pr^s de moi 



158 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

LESSON 61. — Ok the letter T {eovdinued), 

1. The letter T is sounded in sept, seven, and huity eight, when 
ending a sentence. 

Us sont sept. They a/re seven. II en a huit. Me has eight of them, 

2. The T is silent in sept, seven, huit, eight, and vingt, twenty, 
before a word beginning with a consonant or h aspirated, 

tTai vingt francs. J have twenty francs. 
II a sept plstolets. He has seven pi^ols. 

3. Gt of vingt, twenty, not followed by any other word, is silent, 
and the in has the nasal sound of No. 4, p. 118. 

Nous en avons vingt. We have twenty of them. 

4. The T of sept and huit m sounded when coming before the 
name of any month, even if it begius with a consonant. 

Le sept MaL ITie seventh of May. Le huit Mars. The iigWh 

of March. 

5. The T of sept, huit, and vingt, is sounded when they are fol- 
lowed by a word beginning with a vowel or h mute. 

II a sept amis. He has seven friends. II a vingt ans. He is twe^ity. 

LESSON 62. — On the letter T (contiimed). 

6. The letter G is silent and the T scarcely heard in vingt-deux, 
22 ; vingt-trois, 23 ; vingt-quatre, 24 ; vingt-cinq, 25 ; vingt-six, 
26 ; vim^t-sept, 27. 

7. The T is always silent in quaJtre-vingts, 80, &c. 

II a quatre-vingt-trois ans. He is eighty-three. 

8. The T is heard in vingt-ei-un, 21 ; vingt-huit, 28 ; and vingt- 
neuf, 29. 

9. In J^suS'Christ the st is silent, but is sounded in Le Christ 

10. The Th is always sounded as T. 

Une th^se, a thesis; une throne ; le th^, the tea. 

11. The Th is silent in the following words. 

Asthme ; asthmatique ; isthme. 

12. Double T is sounded as one T. 

Attacher, to aMa>ch; attentif, attentive. 

13. The double T is sounded in guttural and pittoresque. 

Similarities. 

14. Most English words ending with y, preceded by any other 
consonant than c or t, become French by changing y into ie. 

L'thonomie ; Tindustrie; Fartillerie; une c^r^monie; une colonie. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 159 

LESSON 61. — ^The Letter T exemplified {continued). 

For Rules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons in "French 
Language Simplified, pp. 156 and 158. 

JVb^jiie • • • • pas. Never, ne . . • • jaiaais. Nothing, ne • • • • rien. 

1. Nous en avons huit. We have eight of them. 
Nous n*^tions pas huit. There were not eight of us. 

n n'arrivera pas avant le sept. He wiU not arrive before the 7tL 

2. Ma soeur avait sept cMles My sister had seven shawls and 
et huit bagues. ei^t rings. 

n aura quatre-vingt-deux ans He will be eighty-two years old in 
dans sept mois. seven months. 

3. Nous en avions vingt We had twenty of them. 

lis ne partiront pas le vii^ They will not go on the twentietL 

4. Paris, le sept Septembre. Paris, the seventh of September. 
n a regu son dipl6me le huit He received his diploma on the 

Novembre. eighth of November. 

5. Mon fi^re a vingt ans. My brother is twenty. 

II a visits sept h6pitaux. He has visited seven hospitals. 

Mes soeurs ont huit ^ventails. My sisters have eight fans. 

LESSON 62. — The Letter T exemplified {continued). 
Muck, beanconp de. Sow much, combien de. Enough, assez de, 

6. Le vingtHsept, le vingt-huit. The 27th, the 28th, and the 29th 
et le vingt-neuf Juillet 1830, of July 1830, are celebrated in 
sont c^l^bres dans Thistoire. history. 

7. II a quatre-vingts ans. He is eighty. 

8. II y en avait vingt-et-un. There were twenty-one of them. 
II a vingt-huit ou vin^neuf ans. He is twenty-eight or twenty-nine. 

10. Je pr^f^re le th6 au caf(6. I prefer tea to coffee. 

II compose pour le th^dtre. He composes for the theatre. 

11. A-t-il visits cette isthme ? Has he visited that isthmus ? 

12. Acquittez vos dettes. Acquit yourself of your debts. 
Void une c6telette de veau. Here is a veal cutlet. 

13. Ce groupe est pittoresque. This group is picturesque. 

14. Cette colonic est riche. That colony is rich. 

Exercise. 

L'antipathie secrete que vous avez pour lui, n'est pas excusable. 
L'^conomie est une vertu n^cessaire dans une famille. II d^teste 
la flatterie. II n'a pas vu {sem) cette c^r^monie. II fut attaqu^ et 
d^vor^ par des tigres. L'Angleterre a beaucoup de colonies. II n'a 

E3,s tu^ {killed) huit serpents. Ne touchez pas au thermom^tre. 
'hiver n'est jamais favorable aux asthmatiques. 



160 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 

LESSON 63. — On the letter V. 

1. F is sounded as in English. 

Un volcan ; la vertu ; le vice. 

On the letter W, 

2. W, to be found only in foreign words, is sounded as F in 
Wauxhodl, WagoUy Wagram, etc. ; as English oo in Whig, Whistf 
etc. ; as French u in the middle of words, Newton, New York^ eta 

On the letter X, 

3. X is sounded as gziaoW. words beginning with «c, followed 
by a vowel or h mute ; and in a few other words. 

Exil ; exact ; exalter ; exempt ; ex^cuter ; exag^rer ; exasp^rer ; &c. 

4. As A;, in exc^s ; excdder ; excessif ; excentrique ; excellent. 

5. As 8;, in sixi^me, 6th; deuxi^me, 2d; dixi^me, 10th; dix- 
neu^ 19. 

6. As 88, in Auxerre ; Bruxelles ; Aix-la-Chapelle ; soixante, 60. 

7. As shf in Don-Quixotte. 

8. AakSfiD. most other words, and at the end of proper names. 
Une excuse ; extreme ; une maxime ; le luxe ; Alexandre ; le lynx. 

9. X is generally silent at the end of a word. 

Lapaix; unprix; £iux; imp^tueux^ 

LESSON 64.— On the letter X (continued). 

10. X is sounded as s in sia; and dix, ten, at the end of a sen* 
tence, also in dix-septy 17. Nous 6tions dix. 

11. X is silent in deux, two ; six ; dta, ten ; when followed by a 
word beginning with a consonant or h aspirated, also in deux end- 
ing a sentence. 

Deux sous ; dix francs ; six shillings ; ils sont deux. 

12. However, X in six and dix is pronounced like a sharp *, be- 
fore the names of months beginning with a consonant. 

Le dix Janvier, the tenth of Janua/ry. Le six Mai, the sixth 

of May, 

13. At the end of words X is always sounded like z on the next 
word beginning with a vowel or h mute. (See page 126). 

II a dix ans, he is ten, II a six enfonts, he kus six children. 

Similaxities. 

14. Most words ending in ous become French by changing ov^ 
into eux. 

FiouSy pieux ; vertueux ; dangereux ; capricieux ; gdn^reux. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH SIMILARITIES. 161 

LESSON 63. — The letter V exemplified. 

For Rules and Verbs, see corresponding lessons in ^ French Simplified," pp. 160 A 162. 

V&n^, trfes, fort, bien ; htU&r^ mieux ; Ze«f, moins ; ^oon&r^ plus-tot. 

1. Elle a une voix tr^s-claire. She has a very clear voice, 
Conjuguez le verbe " voter." Conjugate the verb i?o<er. 

The letter W fjlempltfied. 

2. Wellington et Waterloo. Wellington and Waterloo. 

G. Washington naquit en 1732. G. Washington was bom in 1732. 

The letter X exemplified. 

3. Examinez ces comptes. Examine these accounts. 

II a pass^ son examen He has passed his examination. 

4. Ses exces I'ont ruin4. His excesses have ruined him. 

5. II arriva le sixifeme. He arrived the sixth. 
Mon cousin est le dixifeme. My cousin is the tenth. 

6. A-t-il ^t^ a Bruxelles et h, Has he been to Brussels and to 

Aix-la-Chapelle ? Aix-la-Chapelle ? 

7. Don Quixotte, critique de Don Quixote, a criticism on an- 

I'ancienne chevalerie. cient chivalry. 

8. La Mythologie parle du Mythology speaks of the sphinx, 

sphinx, du ph^nix et du the phoenix, and the Styx. 
Styx. 
9 II pr^f^re la paix k la guerre. He prefers peace to war. 

LESSON 64. .The letter X exemplified. 
fl(m?, comment ; why^ pourquoi ; whm, quand ; lait^ tard. 



10. II y en a dix. There are ten of them. 
Elle en a dix-sept. She has seventeen of them. 

11. Oh sont vos deux harpes ? Where are your two harps ? 

n a six francs dix centimes. He has six francs ten centimes. 

12. II arriva le dix D^cembre. He arrived the tenth of December. 
Elle se maria le six Mai. She was married on the 6th of May. 

13. Honneur aux artistes. Honour to artists. 

Get enfant a six ans. This child is six years old. 

14. II est capricieux. He is capricious. 

H est studieux et gdn^reux. He is studious and generous. 

Exercise. 

Pourquoi a-t-il viol^ sa promesse ? H y a des vipferes dans la 
for^t. Walter Scott a 6crit iymXien) de charmants romans {novd^ 
historiques. Sa physionomie est expressive. Son extravagance lui 
fut fatale. Pourquoi pr^f^re-t-il le vin de X^r^s au vin de Bor- 
deaux? II a recours k un expedient innocent. On admire pr^ 
d'Auxerre les c^l^bres grottes d'Arcy. 



162 FRENCH PRONUNCIATION SIMPLIFIED. 



LESSON 65. — On the letter Z. 

1. Z at the beginning of a syllable is generally sounded like « 
in please, 

Le zodiac ; la zone ; le z^phir ; le zenith ; le zinc. 

2. Z at the end of a word is silent. 

Le nez, the nose; dansez,' da/nce. 

3. The final Z is sounded in gaz, gas. 

4. Z is sounded like ss in Coblentz, Metz, and Khodez. 



LESSON 65. — The letter Z exemplified. 

Interjections: — ^Ah! Ah! Allons! Come! H^as! AUis! 
Chut! Hush! Glare! Take care! Courage! Cheer up! Bis! Encore! 

1. Le zinc est un m^taL Zinc is a metaL 

Le z^bre est un quadrupede. The zebra is a quadruped. 

Elle Yous ofi&e cette topaze. She offers you this topaz. 

Nous admirons son z^le. We admire his zeal 

n a trac^ des zigzags. He has traced zigzags. 

tTai ^\A k un bazar magnifique. I have been to a magnificent bazaar. 

Le zephyr est un vent doux et The zephyr is a soft and agreeable 
agr^ble. wind. 

2. Aimez-vous le riz ? Do you like rice ? 
Adoptez cet orphelin. Adopt this orphan. 
Dansez avec votre cousine. Dance with your cousin. 
Chantez une romance. Sing a song. 

3. Le gaz donne une lumi^re Gas gives a very agreeable light, 
tr^s-agr^ble. 

4. Avez-vous M k Metz ? Have you been to Metz ? 

Exercise. 

La gazelle habite T Afrique. La zoologie est la partie de lliistoire 
natuielle qui a pour objet les animaux. Zo'ile est le nom d'un 
ancien qui critiqua Hom^re : Zoile au figur^ signifie envieux et 
mauvais critique. L'infortun^ Fuald^s i\xt assassin^ k Hhodez. 
Le zenith est le point le plus 61ev6 du ciel perpendiculaire k Tob- 
servateur. Coblentz est le boulevard de la monarchie prussienne. 



INDEX. 



The Black Figures relate to the Paragraphs and the others to the Pages, 



French prominciation conveyed 

by English words, vii* 
Preliminary remarks, 1. 
The various sounds of the vowels 

exemplified, 3. 
Union of consonants, 16. 
Consonants exemplified, 16. 
Grammatical rules exemplified, 

32. 
Miscellaneous exercise, 56. 
French anecdotes, 67. 
French pronunciation simplified, 

61. 
On French pronunciation, 62. 
Similarities of the French and 

English languages, 63. 
French pronunciation ; verbs, and 

grammatical rules, 65. 
On the name and pronunciation of 

the letters, 66. 
The alphabet; accents, 67. 
Apostrophe ; cedilla, 68. 
Hyphen ; diaeresis, 68. 
Little words for beginners, 69. 
The t of et not sounded, 75. 
On the last consonant of a noun, 

75. 
Easy and useful French words and 

sentences, 76. 
Beading and translation, 82. 
Le songe des trois souris, 82. 
L'exp^dient, 83. 
Expense hardie, 88. 
B^ponse piquante, 83. 
B^ponse flatteuse de Louis XIV., 

84. 
Flatterie ing^nieuse, 84. 
Gascons et gasconnades, 84. 
Menace d'un Gascon, 85. 



Le carreau cassS, 85. 

Expense de M. de Talleyrand, 85. 

Louis XI. et Tastrologue, 86. 

Tin discours improvise, 86. 

Literal and interlineary transla- 
tion of the above anecdotes, 87. 

Cardinal numbers, 95. 

French and English coins, 95. 

Weights and measures of England 
and France, 96. 

A list of words, 97. 

The vowels, 98. 

The letter a, 98 and 100. 

A scene from Molidre's Bourgeois 
Geniilhomme, on the vowels, 100, 
102, 106, 108, 110. 

The letter e in general, 102. 

The sound of ^, 102. 

The sound of a, 102. 

The sound of g, 104. 

£ unaccented, 104. 

The vowel t and f, 106. 

On and 6, 108. 

On u and 42, 110. 

On the y, 112. 

The sounds a«, c«, ay, cr, 1 — 114. 

On ai and at, 2—114. 

AuXj eaUf eauXj aud, &c., 6 — 114. 

On OB, CM, oeu, 8, 9, 10, 11— 114. 

Ai followed by II, 2—116. 

On ia, ya, 3 — 116. 

liy iai, iaie, 4 — 116. 

On Of, 0*6, 5 — 116. 

Oa, og, 8, 9—116. 

On oui, 10—116. 

On tie, uel, 11—116. 

rr followed by q or g, 13 — 116. 

CT pronounced after ^, 14^ ^A — Wfe. 

Nasal ^ouiL^"a,\"^^» 



164 



INDEX. 



Anit em, an^ aen, en^ 2, 8 — 118. 

Om, on, con, 5 — 118. 

iZfn, ttn, «wn, 6 — ^118. 

EfU in verbs, 10—118. 

En sounded as tn, 2 — 120. 

Om, «tn, 4, 5—120. 

/in, t/OT, am, en, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 — 120. 

How to pronounce Monsieur, 18 — 

120. 
The unaccented e, 122-124. 
E in successive syllables, 4 — 124. 
Consonants; union of words, 126. 
Consonants having a different 

sound when at the end of a 

word, 5, 8, 9, 10—126. 
Union of words, 128. 
The letter b, 130. 
B not sounded, 3—130. 
C sounded as k, also as 9, 6, 7 — 130. 
C at the end of words, 1, 2, 8, 4 — 

182. 
C pronounced as ^, 6 — 132. 
a at the end and middle of 

words, 7, 8, 9—132. 
On ch and cht, 1 to 7 — 134. 
D in general, 134. 
The sound d at the end of words, 

8 to 18—184. 
Theletter/, 1—136. 
J* at the end of words, 2, 3—136. 
i^in boeuf, oeuf, 4, 5—136. 
i^in neuf, nine, 6 to 9 — 136. 
O sounded as 2 in ff lazier, 1 — 138. 
O hard, 2—138. 
O sounded as k, 10 — 138. 
O followed by A or u, 14 to 16—138. 
H called aspirated, 140. 
ff in huit, dix'huit, &c., 4, 5—140. 
H after i, 6—140. 
Onze, eleven, 7 — 140. 
On the letter/, 1—142. 
On the letter k, 2—142. 
On the letter Z, 8—142. 
L at the end of words, 4, 6, 6 — 142. 
LI, 9, 10. 11—142. 
The liquid Z. 1, 2—144. 
On the I not liquid, though pre- 
ceded by t, 3, 4, 5 — 144. 
Both resounded, 6—144. 



The letter m, 146. 

M not sounded, 6 — 146. 

The letter n, 146. 

N at the end of words, 12 — 146. 

The letter |>, 148. 

F at the end of words, 2, 3—148. 

F in the middle of words, 5, 6 — 

148. 
On|>A, 9— 148. 

Q always followed by ti, 10 — 148. 
Qu as cooy 11 — 148. 
Qu sounded as French cu, 12 — 148. 
Q in cinq and coq, 18, 14, 15 — 148. 
On the letter r, 150. 
R in MonHeur, 3 — 160. 
R in monosyllables, 4 — 150. 
R final, 5, 6, 7, 8—160. 
Rr, 10, 11, 12, 13—150. 
The letter s, 162. 
On 8c and ech, 8 — 152. 
S at the end of words, 1, 2, 8, 4 — 

154. 
On the letter T, 156. 
T in tia, tieuXf tiel, 2 — 156. 
T in atie, itie, tien, 3, 4 — 156. 
^in ^ton, tvum, Hub, 5 — 156. 
Tm tie, tial. Hen, iier,Bt *t — 166. 
T at the end of words, 8, 9 — 166. 
T in tept, huit, 1 — 168. 
T silent in t^t, huit, vingt, 2, 8 — 

158. 
Sept, huit, vingt, followed by a 

vowel, 5 — 158. 
Gt silent in vingt, 6 — 158. 
Th always as t, 10. 
Th silent, 11. 
The letter v, 160. 
The letter w, 160. 
The letter X, 160. 
X sounded as gz, 3 — 160. 
X sounded as k, 4 — 160. 
X as 2 ; as w, 5, 6 — 160. 
Xas sh; as ks, 7, 8 — 160. 
-Tin six, diz, &c., 11, 12—160. 
JTin deux, six, dix, 160. 
X at the end of words, 160. 
The letter z, 162. 
Z at the end of words, 2 — 162. 
Z as M, 162. 



LIST OP THE PEENCH EDUCATIONAL WORKS 



BY 



L. NOTTELLE, B.A., of the University of Paris, 

PBOFESSOR OF FRENCH AND LECTURER ON FRENCH LITERATURE 

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